Fiber optice

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Fiber-Optic Communications Systems, Third Edition. Govind P. Agrawal Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBNs: 0-471-21571-6 (Hardback); 0-471-22114-7 (Electronic)

Fiber-Optic Communication Systems
Third Edition

GOVIND E? AGRAWAL
The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester:NY

623

WILEYINTERSCIENCE

A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

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For My Parents

Contents
Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Historical Perspective . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Need for Fiber-Optic Communications . . . 1.1.2 Evolution of Lightwave Systems . . . . . . . 1.2 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Analog and Digital Signals . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Channel Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Modulation Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Optical Communication Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4Lightwave System Components . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 Optical Fibers as a Communication Channel . 1.4.2 Optical Transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.3 Optical Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Optical Fibers 2.1 Geometrical-Optics Description . . . 2.1.1Step-Index Fibers . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Graded-Index Fibers . . . . . 2.2 Wave Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . 2.2.2 Fiber Modes . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Single-Mode Fibers . . . . . . 2.3 Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers . . 2.3.1 Group-Velocity Dispersion . . 2.3.2 Material Dispersion . . . . . . 2.3.3 Waveguide Dispersion . . . . 2.3.4 Higher-Order Dispersion . . .2.3.5 Polarization-Mode Dispersion 2.4 Dispersion-Induced Limitations . . . 2.4.1 Basic Propagation Equation . vii xv 1 1 2 4 8 8 11 13 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 23 23 24 26 28 29 31 34 37 38 39 41 42 43 45 46

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