Figures of speech

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FIGURES OF SPEECH: For Fowler and Aaron (1995) Figurative Language or a Figurative Speech originates from literal meanings of words, generally by comparing very different ideas or objects. Forinstance:
Literal meaning:
As I try to write, I can think of nothing to say
Figurative language:
As I try to write, my mind is a blank slab of black slate.
Imaginatively and carefully used, figurativelanguage can capture meaning more precisely and feelingly than literal language. It is commonly used in everyday language.
The two most common figures of speech are the simile and the metaphor. Bothcompare two things of different classes, often one abstract and the other concrete. A simile makes the comparison explicit and usually begins with like or as. metaphor implies a comparison instead ofstating a comparison by omitting such words as like or as
Personification treats ideas and objects as if they were human. For example:
The economy consumes my money and gives me little in return.A Hyperbole deliberately exaggerates.
Past conditionals
Maurer (1995) called them unreal conditionals. They consist of two clauses, a dependent if-clause and an independent resultclause. Example:

In conditional sentences that express unreal ideas in the present time, use the simple past tense form of the verb in the if-clause and would, could or might plus the base form of theverb in the result clause. Examples:

A variant form of the present unreal conditional is to use were plus an infinitive in the if-clause. The effect of this is to make the condition seem moretentative or hypothetical. Example:

To express unreal ideas in the past time, use had plus a past participle in the if-clause and use would, could, or might + have + past participle in the result clause.Example:

However, you will hear some speakers use would have in the if-clause. But this usage is not acceptable in formal speaking or writing.


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