The problem of the nature of man has been a big problem for philosophers. Man has been such a being that has caught the attention of the most wise men along history. The science of anthropology is in charge of studying the human being wholly. Wholly means everything man is, how he is, where he comes from and so on. For men is such a being so complex to explain, anthropology hasdivided into many realms. “Thus, attempts to cover both biological evolution of our species, Development and livelihoods of people who have disappeared, social structures of today and the diversity of expressions cultural and language that characterize humanity.” The principal realms of anthropology are Physical Anthropology, Archeology, Linguistic and Social Anthropology.
“The term Anthropology isattributed to the explorer François Péron in the 1800s.” But this does not mean that Anthropology was not studied before the 1800s. The Sophists were one of the first philosophers worried about the problem of nature of man followed by Socrates and Plato. Most of the philosophers have affirmed that Protagoras, one of the Sophists, was the first philosopher who studied man as a Holistic humanbeing, when he said “The Man is the Measure of all Things”.
1. The Nature of Man.
To make a general and historical presentation of what has been the concept of man, and concept of person, we must start by explaining these two terms, since in the course of history have been evolving giving rise to new interpretations and ideas; taking into account also the context in which terms are applied, islikely that its meaning is varied and misinterpreted.
Initially these two terms were not greater significance; "man" is simply used to distinguish the individual from any other humans, and the word "person" had a totally different from that applied meaning today. Although the origin of the word "person" does not refer to what today we understand as such, it is true that always suggested somereality for some reason excellent or higher. Latin voice "personare" indicates a sound that has the strength to stand out. It is no wonder that the word "person" could mean effectively outstanding in the universe: being smart with rational understanding.
The Old Greece, was a town essentially of humanistic character, all Greek culture develops in man and arises from the contemplation of the humannature admired and also reflected in their own gods, seen as figures of humankind with faculties harmoniously distributed among them. “Earlier, Ionia had produced the genius Homer, whose epic poetry projected upon the cosmic scene Mount Olympus, where the gods pursued lives not too different from their human counterparts on earth. This poetic view of the world also related the life of the gods tothe life o humans, by describing various ways in which the gods intruded into or interfered with people`s affairs.” This humanist, spirit freed human, making Greece cradle philosophy thinking.
Beginning in the history of Greek philosophy, man is only an individual, without awareness of the unity and autonomy, human decisions immediately relate to the will of the gods, man is not owner ofhimself, he is divided among his passions, his awareness of freedom and a sense of a destination meets inexorably and just always mysterious death.
It is common to distinguish the origins of Greek philosophy between a cosmological period and another anthropological; the first is the ancient period itself and the second period of the Sophists, and Socrates.
The pre-Socratic tended to conceivethe man in the cosmos, function while the Sophists and Socrates tended to conceive the cosmos by man. The pre-Socratic philosophers not raised directly question by man, because the first admiration was caused the phenomena of nature and focused on wondered what was the last natural phenomena principle.
It appears then Socrates; his teachings focused life according to moral standards dictated...