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  • Publicado : 15 de enero de 2011
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Romanticism is a cultural and political movement originated in Germany and the United Kingdom in the late eighteenth century as a revolutionary reaction against the rationalism of the Enlightenment and Classicism, giving priority to those feelings. Its key feature is the break with classical tradition based on a stereotypical set of rules. Authentic freedom is their constantsearch, which is why its revolutionary feature is unquestionable. Because romance is a way of feeling and conceiving nature, life and man himself is presented differently and in particular developing country where, even within the same nation also develop different projected trends in all the arts.

It was developed in the first half of the nineteenth century, ranging from England to Germany to get tocountries like France, Italy, Argentina, Spain, Mexico, etc. His literary side subsequently fragment in different flows, such as Parnasianism, Symbolism, the decadence or the pre-Raphaelites, gathered in the name Posromanticismo general, a derivation of which was called the Spanish-American Modernism. Had fundamental contributions in the fields of literature, painting and music. Subsequently, oneof the avant-garde movements of the twentieth century, Surrealism, led to the extreme tenets of romantic self-exaltation.

It is characteristic of this movement a great appreciation of the personal, absolute subjectivism and individualism, a cult of the self and the fundamental national or Volksgeist, compared to the universality and sociability of the Enlightenment in the eighteenth century,in that sense the romantic heroes are often prototypes of rebellion (Don Juan, the pirate, Prometheus) and the romantic authors violate any applicable law or cultural tradition to drown their freedom, such as the three Aristotelian unities (action, time and place) and style (mixed prose and verse and using Polarimetry in the theater), or revolutionizing the meter and rhymes back to freer and morepopular as the assonance. Also, a renewal of issues and environments, and in contrast to the Enlightenment (Enlightenment), prefer the nightlife and tragic, squalid and dilapidated places (claims); worshiping and looking at both the fantastic stories as superstition.

One aspect of the influence of new romantic spirit and culture of the growth differential is taking the study of popularliterature (ballads or anonymous ballads, folk tales, songs, proverbs) and literatures in regional languages during this period: Gaelic, Scottish, Provencal, the Breton, Catalan, Galician, the Basque ... This rise of nationalism and nationalism was a reaction to eighteenth-century French culture, classic and universal spirit, spread throughout Europe by Napoleon.

Romanticism also expanded and renovatedand added to the limited language and style of Neoclassicism ushering in the exotic and extravagant, looking for new metrics and flexible combinations or searching the old barbaric and exotic cultures in the Middle Ages, rather than Greece or Rome, his inspiration.

Contrary to the assertion of the rational, broke the exaltation of the instinctive and emotional. "Beauty is truth." He alsorepresented the desire for freedom of the individual, the passions and instincts which appears in the self, subjectivity and the imposition of feeling over reason. In line with this, and compared to neoclassical, there was a greater appreciation for everything related to the Middle Ages, compared to other historical periods.


Introduction and main approaches
The avant-garde is manifestedthrough various movements, from divergent approaches, address the renewal of the art, the question of its social function, delivering resources that will break or distort the most accepted systems of representation and artistic expression, theater, painting, literature , film, architecture and music, among others.
Some authors such as Peter Bürger (art theory) distinguish the "authentic" avant...