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Chapter 1: The Science of Psych

I. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
A. More than that. More breadth and depth
1. Perception, memory, learning, problem solving, communications, emotions, relationships, intelligence, motivation, personality, disorders.
II. Approaches to Psychology
A. Biological
1. Evolutionary Pych - Beh and mental processes made byevolution
B. Behaviorism
1. Desire to make psych empirical, not studying just intangible cog. Applicable to all cul and all animals
2. Watson - Study only beh b/c can’t see mind
a. Based on Pavlov’s conditioning
b. Everything - thnkg, feelings, awareness - by conditioning
c “Little Albert”
i. Jones did desensitization.
3. Skinner
a. Mind = Black Box.
b.Cond + Reinforcements
C. Cognitive
1. Wundt: Volunteerism
a. Founder of Psych 1879
b. Attention humans give something --> controls processes (mem, lrng etc)
2. Titchener: Structuralism
a. Break complex exp to their simplest roots.
b. Cons --> Physical sensations (what we see), feelings, images (mem)
3. James: Functionalism
a. Continual stream of cons.Perc, emot, and imag cannot be sep.
D. Humanistic
1. Maslow
2. Human potential, imp of love, belonging, self-esteem, peak exp,
self-aculiazation
3. Emph on improving humans, not their diseases and such.
E. Pyschodynamic
1. Freud.
2. Free will in illusion.
3. The subcos = prim sexual and agg drives, forbidden desires, fears and wishes and traumas
a. Repressed,but shown m=by dreams, mannerisms, slips, mental ill, art, and lit. Psychoanalysis to reveal.
F. Gestalt
1. Germans. Koffka,Wertheimer, Kohler
2. “Whole Form” - See things as whole, not broken up.
III. Types of Psychologists
A. Personality
1. Differences among individuals in anxiety, sociability, self-esteem, the need for achievement, and aggressiveness
2. Look at culdiffs, gender difs, etc
B. Developmental
1. Human mental and phy growth from prenatal --> chilhood (look at attachments, personalities, acquire lang and morals, diff is gender emerges, look at rel)--> adolescense, (pubery, change in rel, search identity) adult (intimacy, parenting, retiremen, prospect of death)--> old age
C. Experimental
1. Research on lrng,mem, sens, percop, cog, mot, emot
D. Social
1. How pple inf each other.
2. Mostly theory but where things like AA and nursing homes, and classrooms apply
E. Counseling/Clinical
1. about 1/2
2. Clinical - for psych disorders, diagnosis, cause, and trtmt.
3. Counseling - for probs that are more of adjustments. Like marriage counseling
F. Psychiatrists.
1. MD’s whospecialize in mental heatlh. Mostly diagnosis/trtmt of abnormal beh.
2. Only ones who can prescribe medications
IV. Birth of Psych and History
A. Birth --> Beh --> Cog Revolution
V. Types of Research Studies
A. Naturalistic
1. Go to natural habitat and observe
2. More nat, spont beh.
3. Cannot pause/control, repeat, Observer Bias - eyewitness to events may not bereliable. See what they wanna see perhaps.
B. Case Studies
1. In depth escription of one/few individs.
a. Uses obs, interviews, scores on psych tests.
2. Can study rare cases
3. Observer Bias, probs gen to pop.
C. Surveys
1. Carefully selected group of people is asked a set of predetermined questions in interview or questionaire
2. Lots of info, low cost
3. Needsunambig questions, good samp, with mot to respond, not for causation.

D. Correlational
1. Associate characteristics.
2. Describes certain rel.
3. Does not do cause and effect, predictions
E. Experimental Research
1. Scientific Method.
2. Shows cause and effect
3. Does not show love, hatred, grief, ethical questions, artificial, lurking/confounded variables
VI....
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