Anti-inﬂammatory and analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae)
Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Elena G. Dmitrieva, Elaine Maria Franzotti, Angelo Roberto Antoniolli∗ , Márcio Roberto Andrade, Murilo Marchioro
Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia/CCBS, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário,São Cristóvão, SE CEP 49100-000, Brazil Received 16 January 2001; received in revised form 31 October 2003; accepted 18 December 2003
Abstract An aqueous extract of the aerial part of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae) was tested for anti-inﬂammatory (paw edema induced by carrageenin and arachidonic acid) and analgesic activity (abdominal writhes and hot plate) in rats and mice,respectively. Oral administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the aqueous extract exhibited an anti-inﬂammatory activity in the carrageenin test, which was based on interference with prostaglandin synthesis, as conﬁrmed by the arachidonic acid test. In the abdominal writhing test induced by acetic acid, 400 mg/kg of the plant extract had the highest analgesic activity, whereas in the hot-plate test the bestdose was 100 mg/kg. The LD50 showed that Peperomia pellucida (5000 mg/kg) presented low toxicity. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Keywords: Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK; Anti-inﬂammatory effect; Analgesic
1. Introduction Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK is popularly known in northeastern Brazil as “coraçãozinho” (little heart), “l´ngua ı de sapo” (toad’s tongue), “erva-de-vidro” (glassgrass), and “erva-de-jaboti” (purpoise grass). It is a herbaceous plant with succulent, alternate oval leaves and inﬂorescences in terminal spikes, axillary and opposite to the leaves, which grows well in loose and humid soils under the shade of trees. In folk medicine, this species is used to treat abscesses, boils and skin wounds, and eye inﬂammation (conjunctivitis) (Bojo et al., 1994).Literature data have conﬁrmed the antimicrobial effect of the species (Bojo et al., 1994), whereas other activities of the species, such as its anti-inﬂammatory properties, have not been proved. Other medicinal properties attributed to Peperomia pellucida, varies depending on the region, are to lower blood cholesterol level (in Northeastern Brazil), against proteinuria, and as a diuretic (in Guyana) (May,1982). On this basis, the objective of the present investigation was to study the anti-inﬂammatory and analgesic effect of an aqueous extract of Peperomia pellucida.
2. Materials and methods Peperomia pellucida specimens were collected on the University Campus of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil, in May 1998, and the entire aerial part was used to prepare the aqueousextract. A voucher specimen was deposited at the University of Sergipe Herbarium. 2.1. Preparation of the aqueous extract Dried Peperomia pellucida aerial parts were ground to a ﬁne powder in blender and extracted with distilled water (3:10, w/v) under continuous shaking for 4 h at 35 ◦ C, and then was ﬁltered (pH 6.0). The ﬁltrate was lyophilized and stored at 5 ◦ C until use. The yield of theaqueous extract was 11.2%. The crude extract was diluted with distilled water just before administration to animals. 2.2. Animals The study used male and female albino Wistar rats weighing 160–240 g and Swiss mice weighing 20–30 g, were supplied by the Central Animal House of the Federal University of Sergipe. The animals received Purina ration and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. Theanimals submitted
author. Tel.: +55-79-212-6644; fax: +55-79-212-6661. E-mail address: email@example.com (A.R. Antoniolli).
0378-8741/$ – see front matter © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.030
M. de F´ tima Arrigoni-Blank et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 91 (2004) 215–218 a
to oral administration of the extracts or drugs were fasted for 16 h...