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• Manner of articulation refers to how the sound is produced and the way in which the airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract.

• Manner of articulation is the type of closure made by the articulators and the degree of the obstruction of the airstream by those articulators.

• I am going to talk about /b/ and /p/. Well, going with place first,these phones are called bilabial because they are pronounced by your two lips being placed together. The places of articulation continue toward the back of the mouth.

• The next back from bilabials are dentals like /t/ and /d/. These are usually formed by placing your tongue somewhere around the gum line in back of your front teeth. (as Dr Josserand would say, if you're going to learn this,you should try pronouncing these yourself as we go along) The next farthest back is the alveolar area

This area is immediately behind the 'dental' area...mostly considered the space that is the hard part of the roof of your mouth. Trying making an /n/ sound to see where this place of articulation is. Farther back than the alveolar area is the velar area. This equates to the soft palate. Trymaking a /k/ or a /g/ sound. You will be able to feel where the back of the tongue and the soft palate make contact. If you think velars are fun, try doing a /qu/ sound to demonstrate the post-velar area.

Now, just for fun...put them all together /p/, /t/, /n/, /k/, /g/, /q/, /uh/. You will feel as the articulation moves from the front to the back of your oral cavity.

[pic] [pic]

Inour discussion of consonants, we will refer two three basic characteristics

2) Place of articulation – Where in the mouth the airstream is obstructed.

• Manner of articulation – The way in which the airstream is obstructed.

• Voicing – Whether there is vibration of the vocal cords.

In English, there are six places in the mouth where the airstream is obstructed in the formationof consonants.

Each consonant in terms of articulators involved and the place and the place in the mouth where the articulators cause an obstruction of the airstream.

|-Both lips (bilabial) p,b,m,w |
|-Lower lips and upper teeth(labidental) f,v. |
|-tip of tongue and teeth (interdental) θ,ð |
|-tip of tongue and tooth ridge (alveolar) |
|T,d,n,s,z,l,r. |
|-Blade of tongue and hardpalate (alveopalatal)∫, y |
|-Black of tongue and soft palate (velar) |
|K,g,w,ŋ. |

|-Stops: p,b,t,d,k,g|
|-Fricatives: f,v, θ,ð,s,z,∫. |
|-Africatives |
|-Nasals: m,n,ŋ |
|-Liquids: l,r|
|-Semi-Vowels:w,y. |

|Voiceless |Example |Voiced |Example |
|P |Put |b |Boot |
|t |Tin |d...
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