Fosforo en suelos trumao de chile

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UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA DE TEMUCO
FACULTAD DE RECURSOS NATURALES
ESCUELA DE AGRONOMÍA

“EL FÓSFORO EN LOS ANDISOLES DE CHILE”

Tesis de grado presentada a la Facultad de Recursos Naturales como parte de los requisitos para optar al título de:

INGENIERO AGRÓNOMO.

FELIPE ANTONIO SOLIS SOLIS
TEMUCO – CHILE
2012“EL FÓSFORO EN LOS ANDISOLES DE CHILE”

“THE PHOSPHORUS IN CHILE ANDOSOLS”

Felipe Antonio Solís Solís (1)

(1) Alumno tesista, Universidad Católica de Temuco. Email: felipesolis@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
The phosphorus is a limited resource and deficient in most soils. The forms of phosphorus are determined by factors such as topography, climate, parent material and time. The availabilityof P in soil is controlled by geochemical and biochemical processes, first determine the distribution of P in the soil in the long term, and second in the short term because most of this is derived from Mo.
The P in the soil is part of organic pools, about 50% to 60% of which only a small part mineralized and the difference corresponds to the inorganic form. The most common forms of P found insoils are inorganic orthophosphate and pyrophosphate in addition to organic compounds such as polyphosphates, phosphonates, mono and diester phosphates. The distribution of P forms in soil is determined primarily by the pH in soil solution. The soil P occurs almost exclusively as ortho phosphoric acid derivatives.
The Organic P is the major constraint in Chilean agriculture and soils derived fromvolcanic ash. This is because during the formation of Andisols mineralogical changes were reflected in the chemical properties of soil. The strong acidification which in turn affects the pH and the distribution of P in soil is produced by oxidation of pyrite which leads to an increase in the solubilization of aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe .) This is a natural phenomenon in high rainfallareas where the bases are leached showing an increase of Al and a loss of exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, Na and K) that are replaced by Al
The acid soils are generated by loss of base cations and an accumulation of acid cations, when cations acids are released into the solution causes a decrease in pH increases the Al in solution and increases P fixation when combined with Al . On the other hand,the Mo affects P retention due to adsorption on clay produced due to ion exchange with hydroxyl groups. The Mo has two components, one that generates decomposable hardly decomposable fertility and other characteristics influencing colloidal and chemical
behavior of this.
Another feature of Andisols is buffer capacity (Ct) of P, this is because the clay resulting from weathering of volcanic asheshave a very reactive surface. Ct intensity, varies from one place to another according to various factors such as altitude, rainfall and temperature.
Key words: Andosol, phosphorus
RESUMEN
El fósforo es un recurso limitado y deficiente en la mayoría de los suelos. Las formas de fósforo están determinadas por factores tales como topografía, clima, material parental y tiempo. La disponibilidad deP en el suelo es regulada por procesos geoquímicos y bioquímicos, los primeros determinan la distribución del P en el suelo a largo plazo; y los segundos en el corto plazo debido a que la mayor parte de este se deriva de la Mo.
El P en el suelo se encuentra formando parte de pooles orgánicos, alrededor del 50% a 60% del cual sólo una pequeña parte mineraliza y la diferencia corresponde a laforma inorgánica. Las formas más comunes de P encontrados en los suelos son ortofosfato y pirofosfatos inorgánicos, además de compuestos orgánicos como polifosfatos, fosfonatos, fosfatos mono y diester. La distribución de las formas de P se determina en el suelo principalmente por el pH en la solución del suelo. El P del suelo se presenta casi única y exclusivamente como ortofosfato derivados del...
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