4-100ml round-bottom flasks
2-3 way adapter
hot plateAssembling a fractional distillation apparatus;
Pack the fractioning column by pulling a little stainless steel sponge through the column using a hooked copper wire. Never push it. The amount ofstainless steel is not critical as long as it is not packed so tight that the vapor cannot get through. If there is any protrusions be careful not to brake them. After greasing the joints lightly,mount the packed column on the flask. Be sure that the joints is tight, then clamp the column securely but not too tightly. Put a drop of glycerin on the thermometer and insert it into its holder on thetop of the Claisen distilling head. After greasing its joints, mount the still head on the top of the fractioning column. Adjust the thermometer so that the bulb is completely below the sidearm inthe distilling head. This insures that it will be totally surrounded by a vapor and give an accurate reading. If the bulb is too high, your temperature readings will be too low.
Attach rubber tubing tothe water inlet and outlet nipples on the condenser and, after greasing joints lightly, slip it securely onto the distilling head and clamp it. Finally, add the adapter and a collecting flask, whichis also clamped. The adapter should be secured to the condenser with a robber or a wire to prevent it from falling when the collecting flask is changed. Double check all joints and make sure apparatusis clamped securely.
Process of carrying out a fractional distillation.
Make sure that the water is running through the condenser at a slow, constant rate. To avid bubbles , water should go in athe bottom and out at the top. Start heating the mixture. You can start strongly but keep an eye on it ans as soon as it comes to near boiling adjust the heat to get a good constant boiling without...