From the stone age to silicon age

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Reading 2. From Stone age to Silicon age.
The human being throughout its evolution, always responding to its natural curiosity, has discovered methods to transform his surroundings to accomplish abetter quality of living. Civilization of mankind has been accomplished by the use of many new materials, This evolution followed different ages or eras beginning with the stone age, metals age(copper, brass, iron)… up to the current, the silicon era. This is how the modern world is full of materials that are used in all the different aspects of our daily lives such as: Nutrition, communication,health, hygiene, entertaining. From all the materials used by mankind, 3 have step up and have been noted for their wide uses and its importance in modern society, these materials are: copper, siliconand petroleum. Can you imagine your life without them? Copper. A very versatile non-ferrous metal. Its most prominent features are very high thermal and electrical conductivity, corrosion resistanceand easy machinability. It is therefore used as a constituent of various metal alloys. Copper and copper alloys meet the challenges of modern life in many ways. Often seen in plumbing systems and goodquality roofing and cladding, Copper and its alloys are also frequently unseen providing essential services inside equipment in houses, offices, commercial and industrial buildings, they can be foundamongst the most necessary materials needed to provide the means to keep a home, commerce and industry running. Can you imagine living in a world without electricity? Are you curious? Research on theinternet “The new applications of copper” Silicon. Is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, and the most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. Photovoltaic cells for directconversion of solar energy use thin cut slices of simple silicon crystals of electronic grade. Silicon dioxide is used as raw material to produce elemental silicon and silicon carbide. Silicon chips...
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