Fron war to politics

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Berghof Research Center Forschungszentrum for Constructive für konstruktive Conflict Management Konfliktbearbeitung

Veronique Dudouet

From War To Politics:
Resistance/Liberation Movements in Transition

Veronique Dudouet

From War to Politics:
Resistance/Liberation Movements in Transition

Author: Veronique Dudouet is a researcher at the Berghof Research Center for ConstructiveConflict Management. She holds a DEA in International Relations and Security from the Institute d’Etudes Politiques in Toulouse, France (2000) and an M.A. (2001) and PhD (2005) in Conflict Resolution from the Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University, UK. Her current areas of interest include conflict transformation theory, asymmetric conflicts, nonviolent resistance, negotiation, non-statearmed groups, civil society organisations.

Contact: veronique.dudouet@berghof-center.org www.berghof-center.org/

Berghof Report Nr. 17 April 2009 © Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management

Copies can be ordered from: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management Altensteinstraße 48a 14195 Berlin Germany Via Internet: http://www.berghof-center.org/

ISSN0949-6858 ISBN 978-3-927783-98-0

Berghof Report No. 17

List of contents

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 3

SECTION 1: Background and research framework ...................................................................... 6 1.1 Terminology and definition.................................................................................6 1.2 Literature overview: resistance/liberation movements and political transitions .......................................................................................8 1.3 Methodology .................................................................................................... 12 1.4 Research framework......................................................................................... 15
Internal shift Inter-party dynamics International factors 16 17 17

SECTION 2: Dynamics of transition: the ends and means of insurgency movements................. 19 2.1 Objectives of the struggle: continuity or adaptation? ...................................... 19
Role of the state as the main source of grievances Articulation ofobjectives and political claims Openness to flexibility and ideological shifts 19 20 21

2.2 Means of struggle: shifts between armed and non-violent political strategies .................................................................22
Justification of armed struggle: the “right to revolt” Internal structures and organisation: arms at the service of politics Emphasis on self-limiting armedinsurrection: violence as a means to an end A continuum of complementary armed/unarmed strategies A strategic reassessment of means: shift towards non-violent politics 23 24 24 25 26

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Berghof Report No. 17

SECTION 3: Internal and external factors of political transition ................................................ 27 3.1 Role of the leadership and organisational dynamics....................................... 27
A proactive sense of initiative Intra-party consultation and power dynamics 27 28

3.2 Inter-party dynamics and the role of the state............................................... 30
Shifts in state leadership and policies Alteration of power relations 30 31

3.3 Societal factors: relations between RLMs, their community and other socio-politicalforces.............................................................................. 32
Mobilising a constituency Social fatigue 32 33

3.4 International dimension .................................................................................. 34
Search for international legitimacy Foreign peacemaking facilitation Impact of external events and geopolitical factors 34 35 36

SECTION 4: Transition outcomes:...
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