PHILOLOGY.......... METHODOLOGY OF TEFL.
Philology: the study of one language and its culture, literature.
Language: it is divided in practical and theoretical linguistics.
TEFL: teaching English as a foreign language.
If we learn a language since we were 14 or more years, is a second language.
Acquired: a boy acquired the language withoutlearning, this means that the boy learns the language in a natural way.
Language or linguistics:
Synchronic linguistics: the study of the language in a specific moment.
Diachronic linguistics: the study of the language all trough the history.
Applied linguistics: is writing, listening, reading, understanding, speaking, translation, teaching, computational linguistic; (differentskills).
Methodology: is the way of teaching.
Foreign language: is when a child over 14 years learns a language, which is different from his own language.
DISCIPLINES INVOLVED IN TEFL.
Disciplines with have to do with applied linguistics:
Psycholinguistics: studies the brain or mind in relation to languages neurologist and psychologist study the brain and its circumstances. Neurologystudies the brain in terms of blood, channels, etc. Psychology studies the behaviour of a person in relation to the brain; psychology is related with the language because one hemisphere has the language part and for this reason we acquired it.
Sociolinguistics: studies the language in relation to the society.
Geographic sociolinguistics: dialect. Formal or informal: slang, registers, etc.Everybody has his own dialect.
Neurolinguistics: studies the relation between the brain and the language.
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING.
Second language: is acquired a different language besides your mother tongue when you are a boy and you learn at the same time both of them; although the child is bilingual he has a mother tongue, now is called parents tongue. They learn thelanguage unconsciously, that is the reason by which bilingual children always have a parents tongue and another one
The parent's language is used when a person is in a terrible situation, laughter, etc.
The parents tongue is the language that nobody teaches you because you acquire it in a natural way.
After 8 the child cannot acquire the language he just learn so that is very similar to study.English teacher's imitate the real fact of the first language acquisition method, a learners is like a baby and has to acquire the language, for this reason the teacher must use the same procedure.
The baby is exposed to the language all surrounding: teachers, parents, friends, etc, but the second language is not all the time surround; may be is only in the school and perhaps a nativebabysitter, etc; so it is not equal situation.
In the school the children cannot learn the pure and real language because it's only based in books and grammar, etc.
The baby only hears somebody talks and he just unconscious use it, but in the school they need an explanation how to use it.
In a second language the baby is told about rules which are the basis and in the school the only hears theteacher and the irregular pronunciation of their classmates.
The modern methods try to imitate the parent's procedure to teach a language. Now the methods are very communicative than anything.
GLOBAL EDUCATION. OBJECTIVES.
The new aim is to use textbooks, which teach the children not only the language besides a global education such as antiracism, feminism, politics, etc.
Theobjective is to make people nearer to the other country for understanding better a new culture.
If you want to understand and accept those cultures the boy must learn the second language in the early ages (7-8) because they don't bother the new things, but if the boys are older is more difficult for them to understand a new way of making things; (ex: timetable of British people-a boy of 7 can...