Fuaaa especial

Solo disponible en BuenasTareas
  • Páginas : 5 (1169 palabras )
  • Descarga(s) : 0
  • Publicado : 13 de noviembre de 2011
Leer documento completo
Vista previa del texto
Scientific Facts on the
Biological Effects of Fluorides
* (Usefules)Fluoride in drinking water was originally added in the 1940s to prevent tooth decay. Studies have now shown that fluoride causes dental fluorosis in 10% of the population. Even more disturbing than the cosmetic impact that fluoride can have on teeth,
* (consequences) is also linking fluoride to increased risk of cancer(particularly bone cancer) gene mutations reproductive problems neurotoxicity (hyper or depressed activity) bone fluorosis (decreasing density).fluoridation of drinking water supplies.
* (overdose)The fluoride used for water fluoridation does not have FDA approval and is considered by the FDA as an "unapproved drug". The proper use of any drug requires an understanding of how much is too much.Since fluoride is already in many foods and beverages, an estimated total intake of existing fluoride amounts is imperative.
* (Usefules) Research shows fluoridation is unnecessary since we're already receiving 300% or more of the American Dental Association's recommended daily amount.

* (multivitamin)Fluoride is the anion F−, the reduced form of fluorine when as an ion and when bondedto another element. Both organ fluorine compounds and iinorganic fluorine containing compounds are called fluorides, Fluoride, like other halides, is a monovalent ion (−1 charge). Its compounds often have properties that are distinct relative to other halides. Structurally, and to some extent chemically, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluorine-containing compounds range from potenttoxins such as sarin to life-saving pharmaceuticals such as efavirenz, and from inert materials such as carbon tetrafluoride to the highly reactive sulfur tetrafluoride. The range of fluorine-containing compounds is vast because fluorine is capable of forming compounds with all the elements except helium and neon.
* (multivitamin)Compounds containing fluoride anions and in many cases thosecontaining covalent bonds to fluorine are called fluorides.
* (multivitamin)Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water contain F− and bifluoride HF2−.[7] Few inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without undergoing significant hydrolysis. Examples of inorganic fluorides include hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), and uranium hexafluoride (UF6). In terms of its reactivity, fluoridediffers significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more strongly solvated due to its smaller radius/charge ratio. Its closest chemical relative is hydroxide. The Si-F linkage is one of the strongest single bonds. In contrast, other silyl halides are easily hydrolyzed.

* (Multivitamin)Many fluoride minerals are known, but of paramount commercial importanceare fluorite and fluorapatite.[5] Fluoride is found naturally in low concentration in drinking water and foods. Waters from underground sources are more likely to have higher levels of fluoride, whereas the concentration in seawater averages 1.3 parts per million (ppm).[8] Fresh water supplies generally contain between 0.01–0.3 ppm, whereas the ocean contains between 1.2 and 1.5 ppm.[9]
* (vitamine)Sulfuryl fluoride is usedas a pesticide and fumigant on agricultural crops. In 2010, the United States Environmental Protection Agency proposed to withdraw the use of sulfuryl fluoride on food. Sulfuryl fluoride releases fluoride when metabolized. Cryolite is a pesticide that can leave fluoride on agricultural commodities.
* (Natural resourses)Fluoride reagents are significant in synthetic organic chemistry. Due tothe affinity of silicon for fluoride, and the ability of silicon to expand its coordination number, silyl ether protecting groups can be easily removed by the fluoride sources such as sodium fluoride and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF).

* (resoinrse inorganic)Sulfur hexafluoride is an inert, nontoxic insulator that is used in electrical transformers. Uranium hexafluoride is used in...
tracking img