Fundamentos de la ciencia de los materiales. calister

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Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering An Interactive

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Tex t

F IFTH E DITION

Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
An Interactive

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Te x t

William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering The University of Utah

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto

Front Cover: The objectthat appears on the front cover depicts a monomer unit for polycarbonate (or PC, the plastic that is used in many eyeglass lenses and safety helmets). Red, blue, and yellow spheres represent carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, respectively. Back Cover: Depiction of a monomer unit for polyethylene terephthalate (or PET, the plastic used for beverage containers). Red, blue, and yellow spheresrepresent carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, respectively. Editor Wayne Anderson Marketing Manager Katherine Hepburn Associate Production Director Lucille Buonocore Senior Production Editor Monique Calello Cover and Text Designer Karin Gerdes Kincheloe Cover Illustration Roy Wiemann Illustration Studio Wellington Studio This book was set in 10/12 Times Roman by Bi-Comp, Inc., and printed and bound byVon Hoffmann Press. The cover was printed by Phoenix Color Corporation. This book is printed on acid-free paper. The paper in this book was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands. Sustained yield harvesting principles ensure that the number of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth.

Copyright  2001,John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorizationthrough payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (508) 750-8400, fax (508) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, e-mail: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. To order books orfor customer service call 1-800-CALL-WILEY (225-5945). ISBN 0-471-39551-X Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF DAVID A. STEVENSON MY ADVISOR, A COLLEAGUE,
AND FRIEND AT

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

Preface

undamentals of Materials Science and Engineering is an alternate version of my text, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction,Fifth Edition. The contents of both are the same, but the order of presentation differs and Fundamentals utilizes newer technologies to enhance teaching and learning. With regard to the order of presentation, there are two common approaches to teaching materials science and engineering—one that I call the ‘‘traditional’’ approach, the other which most refer to as the ‘‘integrated’’ approach. Withthe traditional approach, structures/characteristics/properties of metals are presented first, followed by an analogous discussion of ceramic materials and polymers. Introduction, Fifth Edition is organized in this manner, which is preferred by many materials science and engineering instructors. With the integrated approach, one particular structure, characteristic, or property for all threematerial types is presented before moving on to the discussion of another structure/characteristic/property. This is the order of presentation in Fundamentals. Probably the most common criticism of college textbooks is that they are too long. With most popular texts, the number of pages often increases with each new edition. This leads instructors and students to complain that it is impossible to cover...
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