What is Natural Gas?
A naturally occurring mixture of Hydrocarbon and Non-hydrocarbon gases found in porous geological formations beneath the earth’s surface, often in association with oil. The principal constituent is Methane (CH4).
Where is Natural Gas available?
Natural Gas is formed from the buried remainsof tiny plants and sea animals that died more than 200 million years ago in mother earth. Under the heat and pressure inside the earth, these energy rich organic material slowly decayed, then changed form until all that was left were concentrations of Natural Gas in layers of rocks. Natural Gas is removed from the earth by drilling wells into the rock, then using pipes to bring gas to the surface.In most wells, the pressure of the gas is enough to force it to the surface and then to the central collection points. When Natural Gas comes out along with crude oil, it is known as Associated Gas, as in case of Bombay High.
Where is Natural Gas found in India?
Natural Gas is found onshore in the North East, Rajasthan and Gujarat and Off-shore in Bombay High. Recently, gas find has beenreported by Reliance Industries in the Krishna Godavari Basin.
What Is LNG?
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is Natural Gas that has been cooled to the point that it condenses to a liquid, which occurs at a temperature of approximately -256 ° F (-161 ºC) and at atmospheric pressure. Liquefaction reduces the volume by approximately 600 times thus making it more economical to transport between continents.Transportation of LNG is done in specially designed ocean vessels. Ocean transportation is undertaken wherever traditional pipeline transportation systems would be less economically attractive and could be technically or politically infeasible. Thus, LNG technology makes Natural Gas available throughout the world.
What is the distinction between CNG / PNG / LCNG?
CNG is Natural Gas thatis compressed to a pressure of 200-250 Kg/cm² (g) (due to its low density) to enhance the vehicle on-board storage capacity. Thus, this compressed form of Natural Gas is used as a fuel for transportation purposes. PNG is nothing but Piped Natural Gas i.e. processed natural gas piped to the homes and establishments for the kitchen and home heating like geysers etc. PNG installation inside thepremises contains only a limited quantity of Natural Gas at low pressure at around 21 milibar (mbar) and is much safer compared to LPG which is stored in a liquefied form in a cylinder. For markets that are not serviced by gas pipelines, CNG can be produced from an LNG storage system. These facilities are called LCNG. LNG contains no water. This eliminates the concerns of corrosion, plugging of fuellines, and the formation of hydrates or exceeds all of the requirements relative to pressure water-dew point temperatures. LNG does not contain any other impurities, such as, oil, particulate, hydrogen sulfide, or oxygen. LNG is not subject to compositional changes driven by the time of year, pipeline demand, or pipeline system. Often, LNG can be delivered as nearly pure methane, the most desirablecomponent of Natural Gas for vehicular fuel. This eliminates any concern over propane-air. The composition of LNG is always acceptable for use as a gasoline replacement. In the Indian market, LCNG is yet to come.
What are the units of measurement?
Natural Gas is measured in volume units, i.e. in cubic feet or cubic meters. Gas production from wells and supplies to Power plants is measured inThousands or Millions cubic feet (Mcf or MMcf) / cubic meter (MSCM or MMSCM). Resources and reserves are calculated in Trillions of cubic feet (Tcf). For instance, a gas field containing 3.65 TCF is equivalent to around 12 MMSCMD gas for 25 years. A rough way of visualizing a trillion cubic feet of gas would be to imagine enough of product to fill a cube with its sides two miles long. Another way...