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Lecture Notes for Course Entitled

Petroleum and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems
by

Dr. Faruk Civan, Ph. D.
Professor, The University of Oklahoma

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan

1

Copyrights
This presentation contains copyrighted material as indicated in the attributions on individual slides, or by F. Civan © 2003 and 2005. This material is provided in support of class presentationand for no other use. Permission for any other use, duplication or distribution must be obtained from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 2

Important Notice
All of Dr. Faruk Civan’s lecture notes, course syllabuses, handouts, homeworks, and exams are copyright material. They cannot be reproduced, recorded and copied in any way or form without the written permission from Dr.Faruk Civan. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 3

Natural Gas Metering and Measurement
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 4

Types of Measurements
Volumetric and rate Heating value Dew point Sulfur content Hydrocarbon components
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 5

Introduction to Metering
Orifice meter is the most common gas measurement tool. Meter simplicity providesconvenience especially at remote locations Important metering characteristics: - accuracy - precision
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 6

Introduction to Metering
Accuracy: The relation between the actual and the measured rates. Precision: The repeatability of a certain measurement. Note: A precise instrument does not necessarily produce accurate reading.
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 7

VolumetricGas Measurements
Methods: Direct volumetric measurement Displacement meters Differential pressure methods Turbine meter Orifice meter
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Selection Criteria of Methods
Desired accuracy Life time Pressure, temperature, capacity limitation Services type (gas, liquid, twophase)
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 9

Selection Criteria of Methods
Reliability andmaintenance / operation cost Initial cost Others

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan

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Volumetric Measurement
P D T

L

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan

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Volumetric Measurement
Actual Conditions/Base Conditions

PV ZNRT = Ps V s Z s NRT

s

 P  Ts  1   ∴ Vs = V     P  T Z    s 
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 12

Volumetric Measurement
(Ikoku, 1980)Super-compressibility

FPV

1 =  Z

1 2

 P  Ts  2 ∴Vs = V    FPV  P  T   s
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 13

Volumetric Measurement
Volumetric Flow rate: dV q= dt At steady flow conditions: V q= t
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 14

Volumetric Measurement
(Ikoku, 1980)

Vs V  P  Ts  2   =  F PV  P  T t t  s   qs  P  Ts  2  = q  F PV  P  T  s 
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 15

Displacement Meters
More advanced than the direct volumetric type Widely used for viscous fluids
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 16

Displacement Meters
Vs = Vactual P  Measuremen t   Ps
of meter

 Ts  1      T  Z  

V = ( rpm )Vvolume

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan

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Differential Pressure Method (Pitot Tube)
Ratecomputed by measuring the differential pressure Common type is Pitot tube

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan

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Differential Pressure Method (Pitot Tube)
Assuming no frictional losses K.E. = P.E.
 v2  g h ⇒ v = 2 gh m  = m gc  gc  πd2 q flo w _ ra te = A v = 2 gh 4 1 2 ∀ C u m u la tive − V o lu m e =

Figure 3-53 GPSA

∫ q (t ) d t
0

t

q = c o n s ta n c t ⇒ ∀ = q t atsteady flow conditions
Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan 19

Differential Pressure Method (Pitot Tube)
High Pressure Signal Low Pressure Signal

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan

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Turbine meter
Velocity sensing meter Attains very high reading accuracy (+/- 0.25%)

Copyright 2003 by Faruk Civan

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Rotameter
Outlet FB F D W

Calibrated Scale

Spherical bead (Plastic)...
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