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Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

Part 9000




The following sections describe procedures for making microbiological examinations of water samples to determine sanitary quality. The methods are intended to indicate the degree of contamination with wastes. They are the best techniques currently available;however, their limitations must be understood thoroughly. Tests for detection and enumeration of indicator organisms, rather than of pathogens, are used. The coliform group of bacteria, as herein defined, is the principal indicator of suitability of a water for domestic, industrial, or other uses. The cultural reactions and characteristics of this group of bacteria have been studied extensively.Experience has established the significance of coliform group density as a criterion of the degree of pollution and thus of sanitary quality. The significance of the tests and the interpretation of results are well authenticated and have been used as a basis for standards of bacteriological quality of water supplies. The membrane filter technique, which involves a direct plating for detection andestimation of coliform densities, is as effective as the multiple-tube fermentation test for detecting bacteria of the coliform group. Modification of procedural details, particularly of the culture medium, has made the results comparable with those given by the multiple-tube fermentation procedure. Although there are limitations in the application of the membrane filter technique, it is equivalentwhen used with strict adherence to these limitations and to the specified technical details. Thus, two standard methods are presented for the detection and enumeration of bacteria of the coliform group. It is customary to report results of the coliform test by the multiple-tube fermentation procedure as a Most Probable Number (MPN) index. This is an index of the number of coliform bacteria that,more probably than any other number, would give the results shown by the laboratory examination; it is not an actual enumeration. By contrast, direct plating methods such as the membrane filter procedure permit a direct count of coliform colonies. In both procedures coliform density is reported conventionally as the MPN or membrane filter count per 100 mL. Use of either procedure permits appraisingthe sanitary quality of water and the effectiveness of treatment processes. Because it is not necessary to provide a quantitative assessment of coliform bacteria for all samples, a qualitative, presence-absence test is included. Fecal streptococci and enterococci also are indicators of fecal pollution and methods for their detection and enumeration are given. A multiple-tube dilution and a membranefilter procedure are included.
© Copyright 1999 by American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
Methods for the differentiation of the coliform group are included. Such differentiation generally is considered of limited value in assessing drinking water quality because thepresence of any coliform bacteria renders the water potentially unsatisfactory and unsafe. Speciation may provide information on colonization of a distribution system and further confirm the validity of coliform results. Coliform group bacteria present in the gut and feces of warm-blooded animals generally include organisms capable of producing gas from lactose in a suitable culture medium at 44.5 ±0.2°C. Inasmuch as coliform organisms from other sources often cannot produce gas under these conditions, this criterion is used to define the fecal component of the coliform group. Both the multiple-tube dilution technique and the membrane filter procedure have been modified to incorporate incubation in confirmatory tests at 44.5°C to provide estimates of the density of fecal organisms, as...
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