Generaciones de hardware y software

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Hardware Generations

The Beginnings: Great Advances

• Abacus: first mechanical device to use for counting, invented in China, 5,000 years ago.

• The Pascaline: Blas Pascal invented the first machine for counting. The Pascaline. Even though the invention was appreciated in all of Europe, it was a financial failure, Pascal was the only one that could repair it.

• DifferenceEngine: Charles Babbage invented the difference engine, which was able to calculate math tables.

• Perforated Cards: The Jacqard Loom, invented in 1891, is controlled by perforated cardsthat had a special design.

Automatic Data Process
• The 1880 census of the USA was finished in 1888. With this machine census could be done in two years and a half instead of 8.

ComputerGenerations
▪ Information Systems John Atanasoff developed the first electronic digital computer (ABC Computer) during the years 1937 to 1942. Clifford Barry helped him in the construction of the computer.

• The idea came from the notes of the design of the ABC computer, John Mauchly collaborated with Presper Eckect in order to design a machine that could calculate tables of missiletrajectories for the American Army.

• Computer ENIAC concluded in 1946 was 1000 times faster. It weighed 30 tons; this computer marks the beginning of the first generation of computers.

First Generation (1946-1959)
Its fundamental characteristic is the use of vacuum tubes (Bulbs)
Some of the computers of this generation are:

• UNIVAC I,
• Mark I (IBM)

Second Generation (1959-1964)• Its beginning takes place from the invention of the transistors. Because of this invention they created powerful, reliable, less expensive computers and occupied less space.

Characteristics:
• Use of transistors
• Compatibility limited only to computers of the same manufacturer
• Low-Level Programming languages

Third Generation (1964-?)

• IBM’s System 360marks the beginning of this generation, which includes integrated circuits.
• The problems of compatibility with the computers of the second generation were almost eliminated.
• The change was revolutionary, not evolutionary, reason why the users had to invest a lot of money when turning their old systems to the new machines

Fourth Generation

• It is characterized by theintroduction of integrated circuits on great scale and by the microprocessors.
• The microprocessors contain memory, logic and control circuits in a tiny silicon chip.
• The microprocessor Pentium VI contains more than 5 million transistors in a single chip.

Software Generations

Programming the ENAC

• The ENIAC was very complicated to program it; it was programmed by setting switchesand putting cables over a panel.
• In 1949, ENIAC designers worked with John Von Newman, PhD to create a new computer. The computer should allow to the programs to be stored in the same way it stored data.

Lenguaje
• Lenguaje: conjunto de señas, patrones, códigos, etc.

LENGUAJES DE PROGRAMACIÓN
• Sirven para crear otro software.
• Conjunto de palabras y símbolos quepermiten generar comandos e instrucciones para la computadora.

PRIMERA GENERACIÓN: LENGUAJE MÁQUINA

• Sus instrucciones escritas en Lenguaje Máquina consisten en cadenas de dígitos binarios (ceros y unos), El Lenguaje máquina (cada procesador tiene su propio lenguaje)

• Programación: El lenguaje máquina era la única forma de comunicarse con las computadoras en la década de los 40’s y50´s.

SEGUNDA GENERACIÓN: LENGUAJE ENSAMBLADOR

• Instrucciones: A mediados de los años 50´s los científicos empezaron a desarrollar mnemónicos con la idea de sustituir al lenguaje máquina.
• Programación: Aunque mas sencillo que el lenguaje máquina, el lenguaje ensamblador es todavía difícil de programar, se utiliza para desarrollar sistemas operativos.

TERCERA GENERACIÓN: ALTO...
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