Integration (noun): it expresses the yearning to spend time in activities and social relations.
Capability (capabilities), noun:
Capability is the quality of being capable; to have the capacity or ability to do something, achieve specific effects or declared goals and objectives. Enterprises in essence consist of a portfolio or matrix of capabilitiesthat are used in various combinations to achieve outcomes. Within that portfolio, a capability will be transient unless managed and maintained over time. Therefore, a typical capability lifecycle spans needs, requirements, acquisition, in-service and obsolescence/disposal phases.
While a highly developed management discipline within several national military organisations, the concepts, principlesand practices of capability management are readily adaptable and effective for wide-ranging application in the strategy and operations of many other enterprises.
The JCIDS Manual, CJCSM 3170.01, states that definitions of identified capabilities must satisfy two rules:
• Capability definitions must contain the required attributes with appropriate measures ofeffectiveness (e.g., time, distance, effect [including scale] and obstacles to overcome).
• Capability definitions should be general and not influence a decision in favor of a particular means of implementation. The definition should be specific enough to evaluate alternative approaches to implement the capability.
Capabilities Described with Architectures.
Capabilities areorganized around concepts of operations (CONOPS), because the CONOPS describe how a specified course of action is to be executed. The ability to execute the specified course of action depends on many factors and the relationship between those factors. Capabilities can be described as one or more sequences of activities, referred to as operational threads. The threads are composed of a set ofactivities that can be grouped to form the basis for a mission area architecture. The architecture then provides the structure for defining and understanding the many factors that impact the capability. The figure illustrates this sequence of relationships.
The Navy has also endorsed using architectures to understand and analyze capabilities and their associated requirements. The Navy performs thisarchitecture analysis based on the concept of MCPs. The intent is to consider all of the factors that contribute to the desired mission capability as an integrated system. An MCP is defined as “a task-oriented bundle of CONOPS, processes, and organization structures supported by networks, sensors, weapons, and systems, as well as personnel training and support services to sustain a core navalcapability.” The MCP and associated analysis then provide the basis for acquisition decisions.
Capability management issues
Due to the complexities of system-of-systems integration, interoperability, and the dynamic nature of operations, capability management is greatly assisted by modelling and simulating realistic strategic scenarios and contexts, in order to inform business cases anddecision-making. Through those considerations and practices, the enterprise and its performance can be continuously assessed and projected into the future. Well executed capability management therefore clearly informs strategic and operational decisions, and aids in the development of diverse but well-considered strategic and operational options, so they are readily available off-the-shelf. This should alsoendow significant agility to an enterprise, providing enhanced "contingency capital" and risk mitigation.
Capability management therefore centres around:
• Strategic and operational appreciations and analyses
• Capability conceptualisation, definition and development
• Operations research and analysis
• Context or scenario-based capability modelling and simulation