Glosario tecnico de ingles (terminos petroleros)

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  • Publicado : 17 de enero de 2012
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“A”

Abandon v: to cease producing oil and gas from a well when it becomes unprofitable or to cease further work on a newly drilled well when it proves not to contain profitable quantities of oil or gas. Several steps are involved: part of the casing may be removed and salvaged; one or more cement plugs are placed in the borehole to prevent migration of fluids between the different formationspenetrated by the borehole; and the well is abandoned. In most oil-producing states, it is necessary to secure permission from official agencies before a well may be abandoned.

Absolute dynamic viscosity n: the force in dynes that a stationary flat plate with a surface area of 1 square centimetre exerts on a similar parallel plate 1 centimetre away and moving in its own plane with a velocity of1 centimetre per second, the space between the plates being filled with the liquid in question. It is a measure of the resistance that the liquid offers to shear. Absolute error n: the difference between the result of a measurement and the true value of the measured quantity as determined by means of a suitable standard device.

Absolute pressure n: total pressure measured from an absolutevacuum. It equals the sum of the gauge pressure and the atmospheric pressure. Expressed in pounds per square inch.

Accelerator n: a chemical additive that reduces the setting time of cement. See cement, cementing materials.

Accuracy n: the ability of a measuring instrument to indicate values closely approximating the true value of the quantity measured.

Angular unconformity n: an unconformityin which formations above and below is not parallel. See unconformity.

Automation n: automatic, self-regulating control of equipment, systems, or processes. See instrumentation.

Axial compression n: pressure produced parallel with the cylinder axis when casing hits a deviation in the hole or a sticky spot and stops. The force pushing down on the pipe causes axial compression.

“B”Babbitt n: metal alloy, either tin-based or lead-based, used primarily in friction
bearings.

Backout v: to overcome the positive electrical potentials of anodic areas in cathodic protection systems.

Bacteria n pl: a large, widely distributed group of typically one-celled microorganisms. See anaerobic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria.

Bail n: a cylindrical steel bar (similar to the handleor bail of a bucket, only much larger) that supports the swivel and connects it tothe hook. Sometimes, the two cylindrical bars that support the elevators and attach them to the hook are called bails or links. v: to recover bottomhole fluids, samples, or drill cuttings by lowering a cylindrical vessel called a bailer to the bottom of a well, filling it, and retrieving it.

Ballast n: 1. forships, water taken on board into specific tanks to permit proper angle of repose of the ve.'lSe1 in the water, and to assure structural stability. 2. for mobile offshore drilling rigs, weight added to make the rig more seaworthy, increase its draft, or submerge it to the seafloor. Seawater is usually used for ballast, but sometimes concrete or iron is also used to lower the rig's centre of gravitypermanently.

Balloon v: in reference to tubing under the effects of temperature changes, sucker rod pumping, or high internal pressure, to increase in diameter while decreasing in length. Compare reverse-balloon.

Barge n: 1. a flat-decked, shallow-draft vessel, usually towed by a boat. Barges are not self-propelled. They are used to transport oil or products on rivers, lakes, and inlandwaterways. Also, a complete drilling rig may be assembled on a barge and the vessel used for drilling wells in lakes and in inland waters and marshes. Similarly, well service and workover equipment can be mounted on a barge. 2. an offshore drilling vessel built in the shape of a ship. Unlike a ship, however, it is not self-propelled. Also called a drill barge.

Birdcaged wire n: wire rope used for...
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