1. CONCEPTS: OBJECTS, SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS 5
2. ABSTRACTIONS 8
3. QUANTIFIERS AND NUMBERS 10
4. DEFINTE AND INDEFINITE MEANING 13
5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IDEAS AND NOUNS 14
6. RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE MEANINGS 16
7. VERBAL TENSES AND ASPECTS 18
8. TIME-WHEN 21
9. LENGTH AND FRECUENCY 24
10.PLACE, DIRECTION AND DISTANCE 25
11. MODE AND INSTRUMENT 26
12. CAUSE, REASON, PROPOSE 27
13.CONDITIONAL AND CONSTANT 28
Conditional sentences 28
Examples (if-clause at the beginning) 29
Examples (if-clause at the end) 29
Examples (affirmative and negative sentences) 29
14. DEGREE, CERTAINTY AND ABILITY 30
Note on inversion with negative adverbs 32
15.POINTS OF VIEW 33
Grammatical person in English 33
Additional persons 34
It is important to remember all the important rules of the topics that we already investigated, for this reason we are going to mention the following things to remember: 35
The main verb in the sentencedetermines whether there can or must be objects in the sentence, and if so how many and of what type. 35
An "abstraction" (noun) is a concept that acts as super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. 35
The principal objectives of these investigations are that students and futuresteacher need t olearn the system very well if they really want to learn in the best way, because if they know the correct structure sentence and the points of view this permit the students to develop correctly with other. That’s the principal reason why we want to study foreing language tu study the grammar in all the ways and forms.
These investigations are divided into explanations of concepts andgive some examples to learn faster the grammar rules. That’s all we need to do: “Memorized them”!
The purposes are that students refresh their basic and advance knowledge.
1. CONCEPTS: OBJECTS, SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS
An object in grammar is part of a sentence, and often part of the predicate. It denotes somebody or something involved in the subject's "performance" of the verb.Basically, it is what the verb is being done to. As an example, the following sentence is given:
In the sentence "Bobby kicked the ball", "ball" is the object.
"Bobby" is the subject, the doer or performer, while "kick" is the action, and "ball" is the object involved in the action.
The main verb in the sentence determines whether there can or must be objects in the sentence, and if so how many andof what type. In many languages, however, including English, the same verb can allow multiple different structures; for example, "Bobby kicked" and "Bobby kicked the ball" are both valid English sentences.
Types of objects
Objects fall into three classes: direct objects, adpositional objects, and non-prepositional indirect objects. A direct object answers the question "What?", while an indirectobject answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?". An indirect object is the recipient of the direct object, or an otherwise affected participant in the event. There must be a direct object for an indirect object to be placed in a sentence. Some examples:
* In "Danielle ate fruit", fruit is the direct object of the verb ate. It corresponds to the accusative of languages with grammaticalcases.
* In "They sent him a postcard", him is the (non-prepositional) indirect object of the verb sent (which uses a double-object construction). It typically corresponds to the dative case.
* In "We listened to the radio", radio is the object of the preposition to, and the prepositional object of the simple past of the phrasal verb to listen to. It can correspond to a variety of cases...