r e f e r e n c e p r a c t i c e a d v a n c e d o f b o o k
a n d f o r
l e a r n e r s E n g l i s h
M a r t i n
PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
The Pitt Building,Trumpmgton Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, United Kingdom
CAMBRIDGE, UNIVRRSITY PRESS
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20thStreet, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh,VIC 3166, Australia Ruiz de Alarcon 13, 28014 Madrid, Spam Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 1999 First published 1999 Seventh printing 2002 Printed in Great Britain by Denirose Security Printing A catalogue record for this book is available from the BritishLibrary. ISBN 0-521-49868-6 (with answers) ISBN 0-521-49869-4 (without answers) Copyright
The law allows a reader to make a single copy of part of a book for the purposes of private study. It does not allow the copying of entire books or the making of multiple copies of extracts. Written permission for any such copying must always be obtained from the publisher in advance.
CONTENTS Thanks vii Tothe student To the teacher
Tenses 1 Present simple (I do) and present continuous (I am doing) (1) 2 Present simple (I do) and present continuous (I am doing) (2) 3 Present perfect (I have done) and past simple (I did) (1) 4 Present perfect (I have done) and past simple (I did) (2) 5 Present perfect (I have done) and past simple (I did) (3): adverbs used with these tenses 6 Pastcontinuous (I was doing) and past simple (I did) 7 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) 8 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) and present perfect (I have done) 9 Past perfect (I had done) and past simple (I did) 10 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) and past perfect (I had done) The 11 12 13 14 15 future Will and going to; shall Present continuous (I am doing) for the futureand going to Present simple (I do) for the future Future continuous (will be doing) Be to + infinitive (I am to do), future perfect (I will have done), and future perfect continuous (I will have been doing) 16 The future seen from the past (was going to, etc.)
Modals 17 Should and ought to 18 Will and would: willingness, likelihood and certainty 19 Will and would: habits; used to 20 May, might,can and could: possibility (1) 21 May, might, can and could: possibility (2) 22 Can, could, and be able to: ability 23 Must and have (got) to 24 Need(n't), don't have to and mustn't 25 Permission, offers, etc. Be, 26 27 28 have, do, make, etc. Linking verbs: be, appear, seem; become, get, etc. Have and have got; have and take Do and make
Passives 29 Forming passive sentences 30 Using passives31 Verb + -ing or to-infinitive: passive forms 32 Reporting with passive verbs Questions 33 Forming questions; reporting questions 34 Asking and answering negative questions 35 Wh-questions with how, what, which and who
Verbs: infinitives, -ing forms, etc. 36 Verbs with and without objects 37 Verb + to-infinitive or bare infinitive 38 Verb + to-infinitive or -ing? 39 Verb + -ing 40 Verb +wh-clause 41 Have/get something done; want something done, etc. 42 Verb + two objects Reporting 43 Reporting people's words and thoughts 44 Reporting statements (1): that-clauses 45 Reporting statements (2): verb tense in that-clauses 46 Reporting statements (3): verb tense in the reporting clause; say and tell; etc. 47 Reporting offers, suggestions, orders, intentions, etc. 48 Should in that-clauses49 Modal verbs in reporting Nouns and compounds 50 Countable and uncountable nouns 51 Agreement between subject and verb (1) 52 Agreement between subject and verb (2) 53 The possessive form of nouns (Jane's mother) 54 Compound nouns (1) 55 Compound nouns (2) Articles 56 A/an and one 57 The and a/an (1):'the only one' 58 The and a/an (2): 'things already known', etc. 59 Some and zero article with...
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