Grammar

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UNIT 3
GRAMMAR. Causatives get, have, and make.
Use a causative to express the idea that one person causes another to do something.
Get: Use an object and an infinitive
Object | Infinitive |
I got the company | To agree to a new date for the meeting |
They got the students | To clean up after the party |

Have: Use an object and the base form of a verb.
Object | Infinitive |
I hadmy assistant | Plan the meeting |
They had the beliman | Bring the guests bags to their rooms |

Make: Use an object and the base form of a verb.
Object | Infinitive |
I made my brother | Help me finish the job |
They made him | Sign the form |

EXTRA INFORMATION
Make
FORM
[make + person + verb]
USE
This construction means "to force someone to do something."
Examples:
* Myteacher made me apologize for what I had said.
* Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat?
* She made her children do their homework.

Have
FORM
[have + person + verb]
USE
This construction means "to give someone the responsibility to do something."
Examples:
* Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature.
* Please have your secretary fax me the information.
*I had the mechanic check the brakes.

Get
FORM
[get + person + to + verb]
USE
This construction usually means "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something."
Examples:
* Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible.
* How can parents get their children to read more?
* The government TV commercials are trying to get people tostop smoking.

Get vs. Have
Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing.
Examples:
* I got the mechanic to check my brakes.
At first the mechanic didn't think it was necessary, but I convinced him to check the brakes.
* I had the mechanic check my brakes.
I asked the mechanic to checkthe brakes.

GRAMMAR. The passive causative.
Use a form of have or get with an object and a past participle to talk about arranging services. There is no difference in meaning between have and get.
Object Past participle
I had my suits dry-cleaned
They´re having the office painted tomorrowShe can get her sandals repaired in an hour
Remember: In the passive voice, a by ohrase is used when the information is important.
We had the office painted last week. It looks great. (no by phrase)
We´re having the office painted by Royal Painting Services. They´re the best!
EXTRA INFORMATION

UNIT 4
GRAMMAR. Noun clauses.
A noun clause is a group of words thatfunctions as a noun. A noun clause can be introduced by that and often functions as the direct object of a “mental activity” verb.
I didn´t know that he wrote that book.
I think that junot Diaz´s novels are fantastic.
She forgot that Andrew Morton wrote biographies.

* When a noun clause functions as a direct object, that may be omitted.
I didn´t know he wrote that book.

* In shortanswers, use so to replace a noun clause after the verbs think, believe, guess, and hope.
A: Does Steven King have a new book out?
B: I think so. / I believe so. / I guess so. / I hope so.
(so= that Steve King has a new book out)

* Other clauses with that often follow certain predicate adjectives. The word that can be omitted.
We´re both disappointed (that) his new book isn´t very good.
Wereyou surprised (that) the ending was sad?

EXTRA INFORMATION
Noun clauses perform the same functions in sentences that nouns do:

A noun clause can be a subject of a verb:
What Billy did shocked his friends.

A noun clause can be an object of a verb:
Billy’s friends didn’t know that he couldn’t swim.

A noun clause can be a subject complement:
Billy’s mistake was that he refused to...
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