Key Words of Present
already,ever,just,never,not yet,so far,till now,up to now
The present perfect is formed by combining theauxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle.
I have studied.He has written a letter to María.We have been stranded for six days.
Because the present perfect isa compound tense, two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb.
I have studied.(main verb: studied ; auxiliary verb: have)
He has written a letterto María.(main verb: written ; auxiliary verb: has)
- We have been stranded for six days.(main verb: been ; auxiliary verb: have)
When you studied the pastparticiple, you practiced using it as an adjective. When used as an adjective, the past participle changes to agree with the noun it modifies. However, when used in the perfecttenses, the past participle never changes.
Past participle used as an adjective:* The bill is paid.
Past participle used in the present perfect tense:
* I have paidthe bill.
In the first example, we use "ha" because the subject of the sentence is "Juan." In the second example, we use "han" because the subject of the sentence is"Juan y María."
The present perfect tense is frequently used for past actions that continue into the present, or continue to affect the present.
I have been in Madridfor two weeks.
Diego has been my friend for 20 years.
The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated. To make the sentence negative, add the word "no"before the conjugated form of haber.
I have not eaten.
You have not eaten.
He has not eaten.
We have not eaten.
You-all have not eaten.
They have not eaten.