TWELFTH EDITION More than 4,000 terms and definitions inside
Set the StAndArd. define the WorK. enAble the ProfeSSion.
Introducing the APICS Operations Management Body of Knowledge (OMBOK) Framework
APicS MeMBershIp connectS you to excluSive reSourceS.
More than 50 years in the making, the the APICS OperationsManagement Body of Knowledge (OMBOK) Framework defines the scope of the operations management field and positions APICS body of knowledge to help you understand the foundation of your profession. Gain access to the body of knowledge that defines your work. Understand the language, best practices, and techniques that help you succeed. The OMBOK Framework provides a vast array of resources for the operationsmanagement profession, including • Best practices, techniques, and language • Dynamic resources to grow and change with the profession • Links among your work, the work in your division, and the work across your supply chain
Key Subject AreAS
• Strategy • Supply Chain • Processes • Planning and Control • Scheduling • Project Management • Advanced Manufacturing and Service Technology •Emerging Operations Technologies
excluSive to APicS MeMberS
Receive a complimentary electronic copy at apics.org/ombok. Purchase a bound copy of the OMBOK Framework by visiting the APICS Bookstore section of the APICS Web site. APICS membership connects you to world-class education, networking, and resources.
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(800) 444-2742 or (773) 867-1777 email@example.com
Twelfth Edition Editor
John H. Blackstone Jr., Ph.D., CFPIM, Jonah’s Jonah Department of Management Terry College of Business University of Georgia
Twelfth Edition—2008 Eleventh Edition—2005 Tenth Edition—2002 Ninth Edition—1998 Eighth Edition—1995 Seventh Edition—1992 Sixth Edition—1987 Fifth Edition—1982 Fourth Edition—1980 Third Edition—1970 SecondEdition—1966 First Edition—1963
Stock No. 01102, 10/07 Copyright 2008 by APICS The Association for Operations Management International Standard Book Number: 1-55822-199-9 All rights reserved. No part of this publication covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, taping, or informationstorage and retrieval systems—without written permission of the publisher. APICS The Association for Operations Management (800) 444-2742 www.apics.org
University of Georgia Doug Watts (MBA assistant) APICS Professional Staff Mary King Joseph Perez Thank you to the following Certification Examination Committee members who reviewed the new definitions for this edition. ▪ RichardBragg, CPIM ▪ Jorge Calaf, CPIM, CIRM ▪ James Caruso, CPIM, CSCP ▪ Ann Gatewood, CFPIM, CIRM ▪ Paul Schoensleben, Ph.D. ▪ Stephen N. Chapman, Ph.D., CFPIM ▪ Mark C. Hardison, CPIM, CSCP ▪ Deborah Drimer, CFPIM, CSCP
▪ Sarah Klunk, CFPIM, CIRM, CSCP
A special thank you to James F. Cox III, CFPIM, CIRM, and Roly White, CFPIM, CIRM, for their review of the terms and definitions and helpfulsuggestions. The Institute of Industrial Engineers allowed us to include several definitions that we have reprinted from the text, Industrial Engineering Terminology, Revised Edition, Copyright 1991, Institute of Industrial Engineers, 3577 Parkway Lane, Suite 200, Norcross, GA 30092. The American Society for Quality allowed us to include several terms from Karen Bemowski’s “The Quality Glossary,”published in the February 1992 issue of Quality Progress. The Theory of Constraints International Certification Organization allowed us to include several terms from the TOCICO Dictionary. The Spectrum Publishing Company provided permission to use terms from the book, Synchronous Management, by Michael Umble, CFPIM, and M.L. Srikanth. The Association for Manufacturing Excellence provided the definition...