Simple verbs: for completed actions or permanent situations
* W + complement + do/does +subject+ Simple verb+ complement?
(answer) : subject + simple verb + complement
* Have + subject+ past verb+ complement?
(answer) : Yes/No + subject + have +past verb + complement
* Did +subject +simple verb + complement?
(answer) :Subject+ past verb + complement
Example: What kind of music do you listen to?
I love Latin music. I listen to it a lot.
Continuous verbs: for ongoing actions or temporary situations
* W+ complement + are/is + subject + verb ing +complement?
(answer) : subject + verb to be+ verb ing + complement
* H + have+ subject + been verb ing + complement?
(answer) : subject + have been verb ing +complement
* W+ was/were + subject + verb ing + complement?
(answer) : subject +was + verb ing + complement
Example: What kind of music are you listening to currently?
I’m listening to a lot of Latin jazz right now
2 Grammar Verb complements: verb ing or to + verb
* Verb + verb ing: [consider, finish, imagine, miss, mind, spend]
He finished reading his newspaper
* Verb+particle / preposition+ verb ing: [end up, keep on, think about, plan on]
I wasn’t planning on leaving Japan
* Verb+ to + verb: [agree, decide, happen, ofter, seem, intend, expect]
They agreed to pay for Korean lessons
* Verb+ ing or to + verb with a different meaning: [remember, stop, try]
I stopped talking to him
* Verb+ ing or to + verb with the same meaning: [begin, bother,continue, start, like, love, hate]
Should I bother applying?
Strategy plus: this and these in stories
We were in this trail, and it was getting dark. Then Bryan says..
New Vocabulary of Unit 1
Thrilled bound refuse
Stuck in traffic expect to give up
End upworth thousands
Planning on instead of being
Bother to flunk out
Unit 2: Personal tastes
1 Grammar: Comparisons with (not) as… as
* Adjectives: objects + verb to be + as+ complement + as + complement
Example: I don’t look as scruffy as I did
* Nouns: subject+ verb + as + complement+ complement
Example: She spends as little time as possible on her makeup.
* Adverbs: subject +past verb + as + verb + as + subject + past verb to + verb + complement
Example: I tried as hard as I could to find the right style for her
2 Grammar: Negative Questions
When you want or expect someone to agree with you, you can use negative questions to:
* Express an opinionExample: Isn’t this jacket great?
* Suggest an idea
Example: Don’t you think it’s too bright?
* Show surprise
Example: Don’t you like it?
Strategy plus: Now
Now used if you want to move the conversation on to a different aspect of a topic.
New Vocabulary of Unit 2
Pleased suede wool jewelry
Scruffy cashmere flaredhome decor
Striped rubber long-sleeved girlish
Polka dot denim baggy outdoors
Unit 3 World Cultures
1 Grammar: The simple present passive
Use the passive when the “doer” of the action is not known or not important.
* H+ do/does + subject+ simple verb+ object?
Example: How do they make kim-bap?* Do/does + subject+ simple verb+ object+ complement?
Example: Do they eat it cold or hot?
* H+ verb to be+ object+ past participle?
Example: How is kim-bap made?
* Verb to be+ subject+ past participle+ complement?
Example: Is it eaten hot or cold?
Answer: It’s eaten cold
2 Grammar: Verb ing and to+ verb, position of not
* Verb ing as a subject (at...