Handbook of X-Ray Data
With 113 Figures and 161 Tables
Ass.-Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Günter Zschornack
Technische Universität Dresden Institut für Angewandte Physik Mommsenstraße 13 01062 Dresden firstname.lastname@example.org
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006937001 ISBN 978-3-540-28618-9 Springer BerlinHeidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speciﬁcally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microﬁlm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions ofthe German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law. Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Media springer.com © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in thispublication does not imply, even in the absence of a speciﬁc statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Typesetting: PTP-Berlin GmbH, Berlin Production: LE-TEX Jelonek, Schmidt & Vöckler GbR, Leipzig Cover: WMXDesign, Heidelberg Printed on acid-free paper 57/3100/YL - 5 4 3 2 1 0
Today, with energy-dispersiveand wavelengthdispersive techniques, modern methods in X-ray analysis are used in a wide range of applications, as for example in X-ray ﬂuorescence analysis, electron microbeam analysis,X-ray ﬂuorescence analysis with charged particles, and so on. In many applications – for instance in metallurgy, mining, microelectronics, medicine, biology, environmental protection, chemistry, archeology, X-rayastronomy, and so on – fast and effective information about the probes under investigation can be obtained by simultaneous multielement analysis. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance for every analyst to have a carefully edited collection of basic atomic data. This is also true in the age of the communication society, where a large quantity of data is available via the Internet. Practicalexperience shows that it is still important to have data sets in the form of printed matter. This is even more important, because much of the data available in the Internet are given without correct citation of data sources and without any evaluation. Accurate sets of atomic data are necessary for the calibration of energy- and wavelength-dispersive Xray spectrometers and serve as basic data forapplications in atomic physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics, as well as data for diagnostics and modelling of different plasmas, as for instance in fusion research and ion source physics. The present book characterizes, in a compact and informative form, the most important processes and facts connected with the emission of X-rays. Beginning with the description of the atomic shell structure,classification of atomic electron transitions is given, and important details about these processes are discussed. Subsequently, an overview
of the basic processes of the interaction of X-rays with matter and of the most common detection systems for the detection of X-rays are summarized. Individual sets of experimental atomic data, known from the literature, are compared between themselves and withtheoretical results. In this way it becomes possible to reach conclusions about the consistency of the data sets to be used. In describing the procedures for energy and intensity calibration of energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometers, guidance in the application of atomic data for the calibration of the detection systems to be used and for transition line identification is given....