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public administration
public administration is the implementation of government policy and academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servantsfor this work. as a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its " fundamental goal is to advance management and policies so that government can function". some of the variousdefinitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs", the "traslation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day" and "the study ofgobernment decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies"
publicadministration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for theirconduct" many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including police officers, municipal budget analysts, HR benefits administrators, citymanagers, census analysts. public administrators are public servants working in public deparments and agencies, at all levels of government.
in the US, civil servants and academics suchas woodrow wilson promoted american civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. however, "until the mid-20th century and dissemination of thegerman sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration". the field is multidisciplinary in character; one of thevarious proposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out fice pillars, including human resuorces, organizational theory, policy analysis an statistics, budgeting, and ethics
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