One of the most recurrent tumors in childhood, characterized by vascular disease with a rapid cell proliferation as a result of endothelial cells (skin), known as hemangioma. This type of benign anomaly begins with a stage of development, followed by an involutional phase that decreases the endothelial proliferation, resulting in a fibrous tissue that separates the vascularspaces. According to studies at the global level, this disease shows that 30% of the cases are injury only during the first weeks or months of life, although a 15% to 20% represent multiple injuries. However, in the Medical Clinic Fundasen of the city of Guayaquil, come a month 1500 children of whom 600 are infants and they recorded an average of 3% with hemangiomas and for women the rate is 3 to 1.Hemangiomas are benign lesions caused by abnormal accumulation of blood vessels in the skin. Often occur in the skin and mucous, but they also appear in many viscera especially liver, spleen, pancreas and sometimes the brain or brain stem, resulting in a hereditary disease known as Von Hippel Lindau, which is characterized by tumors in the kidney, in the cerebellum and damage to the retina. Theirdevelopment begins early before birth or during the first weeks of life, although they may appear later during childhood, adulthood, or advanced age.
Throughout history the classification of hemangiomas has generated much controversy, because at first hemangiomas were classified according to the magnitude of the channels of the injuries or the type of fluid containing these lesions. Thisclassification is divided into two families: Mature hemangiomas turn their subdivided into three types: cavernous hemangiomas, flat hemangiomas and hemangiomas salmon, and the family of immature hemangiomas that include capillary hemangiomas.
Cavernous hemangiomas occur in children taking more irrigation, making it virtually impossible to perform a biopsy because of its large blood component that makes ita bluish red colored tumor. Port-wine stains are congenital lesions and stable, where adult patients develop projections angiomatous tumors. Its color is bright red and smooth surface can usually be a small structure or may include half of the body surface, and 0.5% are common in the area of the face. Hemangiomas stain salmon are known to be small blood vessels visible through the skin, being theareas of greatest proliferation forehead, eyelids, upper lip, eyebrow and back of the neck. Its incidence in newborns is 40% - 70%, being more noticeable when the infant cries or during temperature changes presented. Finally, capillary hemangiomas are also known as hemangioma or strawberry, as they have a structure similar to a fruit, features appear in the first months of life, then stabilizedand ending disappear by about 90% to nine years of age.
However, the classification presented above is that used to categorize a hemangioma until 1982, when it was replaced by the classification of Mulliken and Glowacki, which consists of separate endothelial malformations in two large groups: hemangiomas and vascular malformations based on natural history, cellular renewal and histology.According to the classification of them, hemangiomas show a rapid cell proliferation, are small or absent at birth, they grow fast during the stage of lactation and an involutional process during infancy occurs. In contrast, vascular malformations present irregularities in blood vessels, are present in the stage of birth, have a proportional growth of the child and have no regression.
Hemangiomas usuallystart with a pink spot that continuously increases in size, where their structure can be flat or irregular and its red colour wine. Recurring places where there are hemangiomas are the head, neck, scalp, followed by extremities and trunk, places where experiencing rapid growth, being the length of the proliferative phase of 3 to 5 months. This type of tumor can submit deep injury as the ulcers...