Hidroturbinas

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A handbook prepared under contract for the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy by European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA)

The drawing on the cover, published by courtesy of INIC (Instituto Nacional de Investigaçao Cientifica), Portugal it is based on a photography appeared in the book, "Sistemas de Muagem", written by Fernando Gallano, Ernesto Veiga deOliveira and Benjamin Pereira.

ADDRESS WHERE TO GET FURTHER INFORMATION

DG XVII European Commision 200 rue de la Loi B-1049 Bruselas Bélgica Fax: +32-2-295 0150 E-Mail: info@bxl.dg17.cec.be World Wide Web http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg17/dg17home.htm

Published books DG XVII - 97/010.

LEGAL NOTICE: Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf ofthe Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information

D I R E C T O R AT E G E N E R A L

FOR

E N E R G Y ( D G

X V I I )

LAYMAN'S HANDBOOK ON HOW TO DEVELOP A SMALL HYDRO SITE (Second Edition)

June 1998

E U R O P E A N

C O M M I S I ON

AUTHOR Celso Penche Dr Ingeniero de Minas (U.Politécnica de Madrid)

Introduction

Thishandbook, an updated version of the original “Layman’s Handbook on how to develop a Small Hydro Site”, published by the Commission in 1993, has been written, in the frame of the ALTENER programme, under contract with the Commission of the European Communities (Directorate General for Energy, DG XVII). It has not been designed to replace professional expertise but it is hoped it is comprehensive enoughto advise laymen on all necessary procedures that should be followed to develop a site. However its content includes enough technical information, so a non-specialist engineer would be able to produce a primary feasibility report. Hydraulic engineering is based on the principles of fluid mechanics. However until now there does not exist, and probably never will, a general methodology for themathematical analysis of the movement of the fluids. Based on the large amount of accumulated experience there exists many empirical relationships to achieve practical engineering solutions with the movement of the water, the fluid that concerns hydroelectricity. Chapter 2, based on part of the original chapter 5 – written by Eric Wilson - is devoted to this subject. All hydroelectric generationdepends on falling water. The first step to develop a site must address the availability of an adequate water supply. Chapter 3 is entirely devoted to this subject, and particularly to comment on the European Atlas of Small Scale Hydropower Potential, developed by the Institute of Hydrology in the UK, on behalf of ESHA and with the financial aid of the DG XVII. Experience shows that many small hydroplants have failed because they were poorly designed, built or operated. Most of these failures – seepage under the weir, open channel slides – occurred through a lack of proper geological studies of the site. Chapter 4 incorporates guidelines on such studies. Hydraulic structures and ancillaries represent almost fifty per cent of the investment cost. If poorly designed they will require such highmaintenance costs that the investment will become unprofitable. Chapter 5 is devoted to these structures. Turbines transform the potential energy of water to mechanical rotational energy, which in turn is transformed into electrical energy in the generators. Chapter 6 is devoted to the study of turbines and generators and to the devices employed to control them. Although since the publication of thefirst edition of the Layman’s Handbook many sites have been developed in the E.U, the installed capacity would be greater if the administrative procedures to authorise the use of water had been simpler. Many hundreds of authorisation requests are pending approval, mainly because of supposed conflict with the environment. Chapter 7, “Environmental impact and its mitigation”, intends to provide a...
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