Histologia (resumen ingles)

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  • Publicado : 3 de junio de 2010
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1. The cell
a. Hear the audio. Look at figures 3-11 and 3-15 of Gardner histology

2. Epithelium
a. Know fig 2-1 of High yield histology

3. Connective Tissue
a. Ground Substance
i. Proteoglycans
ii. Glycoproteins
iii. Minerals
iv. Water
b. Fibers
i. Collagenii. Elastic
c. Cells
i. Resident
- Fibroblast
- Macrophages
- Mast cells
- Adipocytes
- Chondroblasts and Chondrocytes
- Osteoblasts and Osteocytes
ii. Transient
- Inflammatory cells

4. Cartilagea. GROUND SUBSTANCE with no minerals and a lot of water
b. Type I or II collagen FIBERS
c. Chondro- cells
d. No blood vessels and nerves
e. Low repair

5. Bone
a. GROUND SUBSTANCE with minerals and little water
b. Type I collagen FIBERS
c. Osteo- cells (just osteoprogenitor cells suffer mitosis)
d. Blood vesselsand nerves present in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals
e. High repair

6. Muscle [sER functions: lipid, Ca, drugs CYP450]
a. Skeletal Muscle
i. Fibers
- Red fibers are slow with aerobic glycolysis
- White fibers are fast with anaerobic glycolysis
b. Cardiac Muscle
i. The intercalated disksconsist of:
- Fascia adherens and desmosomes
- Gap junctions

c. Smooth Muscle
i. Cytoplasmic dense bodies (like Z lines in Skeletal muscle)
ii. Caveolae (like T tubules in Skeletal muscle)
iii. Smooth muscle has vinculin, talin, desmin and vimentin
iv. It doesn’t have neuromuscular junction.Contraction is intrinsic, neural or hormonal

7. Nervous tissue
a. Saxitoxin, tetrodotoxin and lidocaine blocks sodium channels
b. Tetraethylammonium blocks potassium channels (also 4-aminopyridine in heart)

8. Heart and blood vessels
a. Endocardium
i. Subendocardial layer contains: blood vessels, nerves and Purkinje myocytes (wich has gapjunctions)
b. Myocardium
i. Know the phases of action potencial of cardiac myocytes and who blocks them
ii. What secrete the myocardial endocrine cells? ANP
c. Epicardium
i. Connective tissue + mesothelium
d. An elevated CK-1 and CK-2 fraction provides eartly confirmation of myocardial infarction
e. A reversed LDH1:LDH2ratio at 24 hours after admission is a characteristic sign for confirmation of myocardial infarction
f. Blood vessels
i. Tunica intima
- Endothelium + basal lamina +loose connective tissue +internal elastic lamina
ii. Tunica media
- Smooth muscle cells + type III collagen + elastic fibers + external elastic laminaiii. Tunica adventitia
- fibroblast + type I collagen + some elastic fibers
iv. Types of capillaries (fenestrated, continuous and discontinuous [sinusoids])
g. Modification of blood flow
i. Autoregulation normal range of pressure
ii. Active hyperemia proportional to metabolic activity
iii. Reactivehyperemia after a period of occlussion

9. Blood [Peroxisomes contain oxidases for fatty acid oxidation and for peroxide “metabolism”]
a. Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes contain granules that contain acid hydrolases and peroxidase (Eosinophils contain crystals in its granules that contain MBP; they are called Charkot Leyden granules)
b. Basophils contain granules that...
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