A HISTORY OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN EUROPE
BERLIN, LONDON, PARIS 1919-1939
Volume I & II
Algora Publishing New York
© 2006 by Algora Publishing. All Rights Reserved www.algora.com No portion of this book (beyond what is permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the United States Copyright Act of 1976) may be reproducedby any process, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, without the express written permission of the publisher. ISBN: 0-87586-355-8 (softcover) ISBN: 0-87586-356-6 (hardcover) ISBN: 0-87586-357-4 (ebook)
Originally published as Histoire de l'homosexualité en Europe, © Éditions Seuil, 2000 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Tamagne, Florence,1970[Histoire de l'homosexualite en Europe. English] A history of homosexuality : Europe between the wars / by Florence Tamagne. p. cm. Translation of: Histoire de l'homosexualite en Europe. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-87586-278-0 (trade paper) — ISBN 0-87586-279-9 (hard) — ISBN 087586-280-2 (e-book) 1. Homosexuality—Europe—History—20th century. I. Title. HQ76.3.E8T35132003 306.76'6'0940904—dc22 2003027409 This work is published with the support of the French Ministry of Culture/National Book Center of France
Front Cover: Otto Dix, Eldorado, aquarelle, 1927 Berlinische Galerie, Berlin,. Archives AKG, Paris, © ADAGP. Paris 2000 Printed in the United States
A History of Homosexuality in Europe (1919-1939) was originally published in France by Editions duSeuil; this is the complete English translation. Part I and II introduce the first glimmerings of tolerance for homosexuality around the turn of the last century, quickly squelched by the trial of Oscar Wilde which sent a chill throughout the cosmopolitan centers of the world. Then, a variety of factors came together in the aftermath of World War I to forge a climate that was more permissive andopen. The Roaring Twenties are sometimes seen, in retrospect, as having been a golden age for homosexuals and lesbians; and the literary output of the era shows why. Part III, however, explores a different dynamic that was also taking shape, and how that played out. The Depression, the rise of fascist movements, and a counter-reaction against what were seen as the excesses of the post-war eracontributed to a crackdown on homosexuals, and new forms of repression emerged. What happened to homosexuals during and after World War II has been described in other books; here, Florence Tamagne traces the different trends in Germany, England and France in the period leading up to that cataclysm and provides important background to any understanding of the later events.
TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD INTRODUCTION THE HISTORY OF HOMOSEXUALITY: A NEW AND CONTROVERSIAL HISTORY RESEARCH IN HOMOSEXUALITY: METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS PART ONE A BRIEF APOGEE: THE 1920S, A FIRST HOMOSEXUAL LIBERATION THE HOMOSEXUAL — BETWEEN DANDY AND MILITANT CHAPTER ONE A MYTH IS BORN: THOSE FLAMBOYANT DAYS LOOKING BACK: 1869-1919 One Scandal after Another The Shock of the First World War The homosexual, a traitor tothe fatherland The front as a school in homosexuality The war casts open the blinds THE HOMOSEXUAL SCENE: SUBVERSIVE LANGUAGE Homosexual Talk: from “Slang” to “Camp” Dandies and Flappers: Homosexuals Have Style MAGICAL CITIES, MYTHICAL CITIES: THE GEOGRAPHY OF WHERE TO MEET Berlin, A Homosexual Capital The male scene The female scene Triumph of the amateurs London, or the Glamour of Uniforms Notmuch of scene at all Pick-ups and prostitutes Paris, Montmartre, and Getting Caught Dance time Night life
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A History of Homosexuality in Europe
CHAPTER TWO LIBERATION ON THE MOVE: THE GOLDEN AGE OF HOMOSEXUAL MOVEMENTS THE GERMAN MODEL: COMMUNITARIANISM AND MILITANCY Magnus Hirschfeld, Prefiguring the...