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Inglés Instrumental II
Maestría en Educación Robinsoniana

Actividad Evaluativa Ingles II. Unidad III


Coherecias y cohesión de textos

A continuación se te presenta un texto original escrito en inglés, titulado "Communication and the Learning Situation”. Realiza una lectura global del mismo sin detenerte en palabras que noconozcas. Luego, lee el primer y último párrafo con el fin de tener un idea general sobre lo que vas a leer. Finalmente, realiza las actividades que se te piden posteriormente

Communication and the Learning Situation

In order for a learning situation to actually promote learning, teachers must do more than loosely organize a set of learning tasks, and hope for the best. At a minimum,the teacher must identify to his or her own satisfaction what the learning tasks are designed to accomplish, for example: Is a set of learning tasks designed to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge at some level of the cognitive domain as it relates to whatever is being taught, or to yield observable behaviors that indicate learning has occurred? At this initial stage of the learning process,the teacher is starting to develop what we identified in Fig. 2.2 as encoding and investigation processes.

ºThe teacher must also identify to the satisfaction of his or her students what the learning task demands in the way of individual behaviors. And herein lies the problem. While teachers may be able to identify in their own minds what a learning task is designed to accomplish, there isno guarantee they will be able to communicate this to the student. Many of the learning tasks we ask our students to engage in are unclear or characterized by a high degree of ambiguity. As a case in point, consider one of the most common learning tasks teachers employ: the term paper. A teacher, no doubt, has good reasons for assigning a lengthy essay devoted to a single subject matter. (S)he maydesire to know whether the student can apply knowledge gleaned in the classroom, whether the student is creative, or a host of other things. Far too often, however, what the teacher desires to know, hopes to accomplish, or requires of the student is never understood fully by the student. This is not to say that the teacher has failed to discuss the requirements of the learning task entirely, butthat the discussion is frequently unclear or ambiguous in the mind of the student. Obviously, this diminishes the probability of the student behaving in a fashion consistent with the expectations of the teacher.

Communication between teachers and students defines, in part, the learning situation. If a teacher desires to influence one or all of the domains of behavioral learning, by way ofsome learning task, the teacher must communicate to his or her students precisely what it is that the learning task demands of them. For example, if the learning task demands a fifteen-page evaluation with grammatical perfection and proper punctuation, then the teacher should communicate to the students precisely what (s)he means by: (I) fifteen pages, (2) evaluation, (3) grammatical perfection,and (4) proper punctuation in other words, the teacher should clearly identify the objectives of the assignment to the students, and the behaviors the students must engage in in order to successfully complete the assignment. As a precautionary device, the teacher should also employ some measure designed to access whether the students fully understand the stated objective, as well as the behaviorsrequired of them. As we pointed out in Chapter 2, the only way we have of knowing whether our messages have been understood is through feedback.

To summarize: teachers should initially identify for themselves what a learning task is designed to accomplish, and the behavioral domain of learning at which the learning task is targeted. Following this, they should clearly identify for...
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