- De Cobra movement
- Beleldstatistiek/Infographics, Elffers en Bruna - Image in graphic design/ Abstract expressionism - Minimalism art and functionalism - Pop art - Fluxus/Beeke and Stolk, Psycadelia
- Body Art - Land Art - Postmodernism - References
References - A History of Graphic Design, Meggs Philipps,2005 -
The new TypographyBetween the two world wars there was a change in the graphics industry. Before this time design was mostly used to make text more appealing, after it got a function. The designs were bright and clear message to the best to come. One of the pioneers of this new designs was in the Netherlands Piet Zwart (1885-1977). For him, designing was a practical art that would serve a clearly defined purpose. He wasinspired by Dada and De Stijl. From 1927 Piet Zwart used in his designs increasingly photography and photomontage. Another characteristic is the dinamism and asymetry. Paul Schuitema in the 1920s, began to work applying the principles of De Stijl and constructivism to commercial advertising. Along with Gerard Kiljan and his famous colleague Piet Zwart, he followed ideas pioneered in the SovietUnion by El Lissitzky and Rodchenko, in Poland by Henryk Berlewi and in Germany by Kurt Schwitters and Gerrit Kiljan.
Advertisement for “Berkel” scales by Paul Schuitema (1920s)
Advertisement by Piet Zwart (1920s)
Amsterdamse School/Wendingen/Art Deco The Amsterdamse School is a typical Amsterdam building style from the period from 1915 to 1940. The Amsterdam School movement had its roots inInternational Expressionist architecture, of which Antoni Gaudi - whose fabulously detailed buildings include the Casa Mila in Barcelona - is said to be the father. Amsterdam School buildings are characterized by their brick constructions often with a rounded appearance and decorative stone-work, stained glass, wrought ironwork, “ladder” windows (with horizontal bars) or spires. The movement’s aimwas to create a total architectural experience, both in the interior and the exterior of the building. Perhaps the best example of the Amsterdam School is de Klerk’s building, Het Schip, which also now serves as the museum for the movement. The Museum Het Schip offers regular guided tours around important buildings of the movement.
In German Brick Expressionism important expressionistbuildings are excluded, such as the famous Einstein Tower in Potsdam by Erich Mendelsohn (white plaster) and the Philharmonie in Berlin by Hans Scharoun (yellow facade). These two buildings are related to international Expressionist architecture. In the international movement the expressive language of architectural form is relevant and different materials and colours are existing. Further examples ofinternational Expressionist architecture are: the P.L.Takstraat Housing Estate in Amsterdam by Piet Kramer (red brick), the Goetheanum in Dornach by Rudolf Steiner (grey concrete). Buildings of the Amsterdam School are characterized by brick construction with complicated masonry with a rounded or organic appearance, relatively traditional massing, and the integration of an elaborate scheme ofbuilding elements inside and out: decorative masonry, art glass, wrought ironwork, spires or “ladder” windows (with horizontal bars), and integrated architectural sculpture. The aim was to create a total architectural experience, interior and exterior.
Decorative brickwork in a social housing project on the Henriette Ronnerplein, Amsterdam
With its first issue in January of 1918 Wendingen set anew standard in arts publishing. The pioneering journal sought out the newest ideas by the most creative practitioners in all of the visual arts--architecture, graphics, typography, sculpture, ceramics, glass, and theatrical design--and then reproduced them in sumptuous, hand-bound editions of unparalleled beauty. Over its fourteen-year history, Wendingen, which translates roughly as “upheaval,”...