Drafting and revising the essay
Student writers must be prepared to write a draft, revise it, and then write another draft.
This process must be repeated several times until an essay is ready for the audience.
1. an introduction that:
A. appeals to the needs and interests of the audience
B. gives background information about the topicC. has a strong clear thesis statement
2. body paragraphs
A. have topic sentences that relate to the topic and that contain controlling ideas
B. contain supporting sentences
C. Present material that uses appropriate methods of development.
3. a conclusion
A. summarize the main idea in the essay
B. emphasize the important points
C. offers a prediction, asolution, or a recommendation
An essay with a clear thesis statement, a carefully identified audience and purpose, and body paragraphs that support the topic sentences will have a logic that makes the essay to read and understand.
Coherence Devices to make a sophisticated paragraph:
1. The use of pronouns:
Ex: English is considered an international language. It isspoken by more than 260 million people all over the world.
2. The repetition of key words and phrases.
3. The use of transitional words
These words are called connectors. Here are some examples of them
• Chronological transitions: presently, at length, the next day, first, soon.
• Spatial transitions: a little farther on, in the next room, at that attitude, between thosecities.
• Comparison transitions: likewise, similarly, at the same time, once again, once more.
• Contrast transitions: however, conversely, even so, nevertheless, in contrast.
• Middle paragraph transitions: for example, frequently, for instance, in particular, to illustrate.
• Cause- effect transitions: therefore, as a result, as a consequence, finally, thus.
• Middleparagraph transitions: in fact, again, first, moreover, surely, indeed.
• Counterargument transitions: of course, although, even though, true.
• Conclusion transitions: therefore, in a word, on the whole, in summary, finally.
A paragraph hook uses the coherence device of repetition. The writer repeats one or more words from one paragraph in the first sentence of the nextparagraph. (You can use synonyms)
Revision of Drafts
Re means again. Revision takes place throughout the writing process. As the author thinks, plans develop ideas, and writes.
• How can I make this more interesting for my audience?
➢ Focus on the Audience: What are the interests, experiences, education, prejudices?
➢ Focus on the purpose: What is the purpose of myessay?
➢ Focus on communication: How does your essay communicate our purpose successfully?
➢ Peer Revision
Writing in the language Classroom
Writing for learning
When writing students frequently have more time to think than they do in oral activities. Writing encourages students to focus on accurate language use and because they think as they write.• Reinforcement writing
Teachers often ask students to write sentences using recently learnt grammar. Students can be also asked to write paragraphs or longer compositions to practice certain aspects of the language or paragraph construction.
Writing may help to prepare another activity. This gives students time to think up ideas, fluent opinions etc.
EX: dialogues- questionnaires- writing can help the listening and speaking skills.
Writing for Writing
The teacher’s objective here is to help students become better writers and to learn how to write different registers General language improvement may occur. Teach features of writing as orthography, punctuation and handwriting are important but helping students to communicate...