Summary: How a bill becomes a law
A bill must be officially submitted by a senator or representative for deliberation. During the course of deliberation, the committeerefers the bill to one of the subcommittees (which hold hearings, listen to expert testimony and amend the proposed legislation before referring it to the full committee for its consideration). Once it’sreported the bill must pass the Rules Committee, which determines the rules that will govern action on the bill on the House floor. It allots the time for debate and decides to what extent amendmentsto the bill can be proposed from the floor. It can be a Closed Rule or Open Rule .
In the House the time allotted is controlled by the bill’s sponsor and by its leading opponent, whousually are the committee chair and the ranking minority member of the committee that processed the bill (or designate). They are grants the power to allocate most of the debate time in small amounts tomembers who seek to speak pro or against the measure.
In the Senate there is unlimited debate. A senator can speak as long as he (she) wishes. They can use the filibuster tactic in order to preventaction on the legislation that they opposed. But this tactic can be ended with cloture .
Conference Committee: Reconciling House and Senate Versions of a Bill:
Sometimes a bill may pass one chamberbut undergo substantial revision to another one. Conference committees may be required to iron out the differences between the two pieces of legislation. They meet behind closed doors and requiremajority support from both delegations for agreement. When the bill comes out of the conference, the House-State conference report must be approved on the floor of each chamber.
Presidential action:The president can decide to sign the bill into a law or veto it. To veto it, the president returns it within 10 days to the Congress in which originated, along with his objections. If Congress...
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