Html

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HTML Workshop
Introduction

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a standardized computer language for
certain files on the Internet. A standardized language means that all programs can
read and process files written in this language.
HTML is the standard that all designers follow for transferring documents on the
Internet.
HTML has changed significantly since it was first introduced, andit is still
changing.

URL

Everything in HTML documents is based on transferring files. When you click on
something, the computer retrieves files and reformats them in various ways. The
files you retrieve are on another computer (called a server).
• A server is just like any other computer, except that it is connected to the
Internet and has special software.
When you call a URL(Uniform Resource Locator), you are actually asking to
retrieve a file, along with any other files associated with it (e.g. pictures). Your
computer then takes these files, and the browser on your computer reformats them
for you to see.
• Your computer is called the client.
• A browser is the program you use to search the Internet, e.g., Netscape or
Explorer.

Tags
HTML coding

Within the HTMLfile, you can tell the computer coding by all the information in
angle brackets . This is called an element. ( is an element) Some of this
coding is important for the computer and must be input. Other codes are important
for the way the text appears on the screen, or for other actions when you enter text
or click on something.
Tags can have attributes which can make further refinements. (href is an
attribute) All of these attributes can be found in the documentation.
• In this workshop, all text that represent tags is in boxes.
Codes which must be made
These codes must appear in the file for the browser to
understand that it is an HTML file.
Most HTML coding is achieved by marking the beginning
and ending of text. The beginning is shown by the code in
plain angle brackets, while the end is shown by a slash
, e.g.
Discussion of the above coding.
- Tells the computer that this is the beginning of an HTML file.
- Header. Important later for more complex coding.
- The information that displays at the very top of the browser
window. This is the information stored when you save a bookmark, and is also
important for "search engines" (Webcrawler, Yahoo, etc.)- End of the Header







- Where the text of the document will be. This tag has
several attributes:
BACKGROUND=URL, BGCOLOR=#RRGGBB, TEXT=#RRGGBB,
LINK=#RRGGBB, VLINK=#RRGGBB, ALINK=#RRGGBB
This tells us that the tag
will give us a red background. Each color has a number, and there is a
page giving the colors at:
http://infoshare1.princeton.edu/katmandu/html/color2.html
-Tells the computer that this is the end of the HTML file.

Tags That Affect What You See
In the HTML Documentation Table of Contents, the HTML tags are arranged
in various ways.
Tags which affect the text
Appearance
Most of these tags mark the text, which means that there is a beginning and
end . Most make sense as you try them. For example, the tags
give varying sizes of fonts, dependingon what number (1-7) you substitute for #.
It is important to realize that many tags do more than you would think. For
example, the tags give a blank line before and after the text.
An alternative to is and which give the same
sizes, but do not put in the blank lines before and after the text.
Example of
Please help me
Displays as:
Please
help
me
Example of
Please help meDisplays as:
Please help me
Another couple of important points to keep in mind are:
• All empty space is ignored by the browser.
• The only way to affect how the text looks is by putting in the tags.

For example, these will display as the first example above:
Please help me
Please help me
Please help me
Please

help

Me


Dividers
The Divider tags provide different methods of...
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