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ALTERNATIVE FUELS— THE FUTURE OF HYDROGEN
SECOND EDITION

ALTERNATIVE FUELS— THE FUTURE OF HYDROGEN
SECOND EDITION BY MICHAEL FRANK HORDESKI

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hordeski, Michael F. Alternative fuels : the future of hydrogen / by Michael Frank Hordeski. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-88173-595-7 (alk. paper) -- ISBN 1-4200-8016-4 (distribution by Taylor &Francis : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-88173-596-5 (electronic) 1. Hydrogen as fuel. 2. Fuel switching. 3. Hydrogen cars. 4. Automobile industry and trade--Forecasting. I. Title. TP359.H8H67 2008 333.79’4--dc22

2007050884

Alternative fuels : the future of hydrogen--second edition / by Michael Frank Hordeski ©2008 by The Fairmont Press, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Published by The Fairmont Press, Inc. 700 Indian Trail Lilburn, GA 30047 tel: 770-925-9388; fax: 770-381-9865 http://www.fairmontpress.com
Distributed by Taylor & Francis Ltd. 6000 BrokenSound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA E-mail: orders@crcpress.com Distributed by Taylor & Francis Ltd. 23-25 Blades Court Deodar Road London SW15 2NU, UK E-mail: uk.tandf@thomsonpublishingservices.co.uk

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0-88173-595-7 (The Fairmont Press, Inc.) 1-4200-8016-4 (Taylor & Francis Ltd.) While every effort is made to providedependable information, the publisher, authors, and editors cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface ............................................................................................................. vii Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Fuels and Trends.........................................................................1 The Evolution of Oil .................................................................33 Fuel and Autos ..........................................................................67 Fuels for the Auto ...................................................................101 The New Transportation .......................................................125Fuels and the Environment ...................................................151 Hydrogen Sources, Biomass and Wind Power...................175 Alternative Fuel Paths and Solar Hydrogen ......................213 Infrastructure Choices and Nuclear Hydrogen .................235

Chapter 10 Trends in Fuels and Energy Technology .............................255 Index..............................................................................................................284

PREFACE
Oil prices hovering at $100 a barrel, soaring Chinese demand, rocketing energy markets, climate-destabilizing carbon emissions, new energy investments at $500 billion/year, the energy world has lost its bearings. Not since the energy shocks of the 1970’s has the availability of energy been so important. Arecent survey indicated Americans believe energy security should be a top priority of U.S. energy policy with wide support for a moon shot type of effort to develop a hydrogen economy. The dependence of the U.S. on oil creates a national security vulnerability that could result in widespread economic problems and increased global instabilities. Many factors affect our energy use, one of the mostimportant is the availability of fuels. Mineral fuels can be divided into three types: solid, liquid and gas. In the first group are the coals. In the second group are the petroleum products which are rich in both carbon and hydrogen. These products provide a large range of fuels and lubricants. In the third group are the natural gases from petroleum deposits, the butane gases and coal and coke...
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