India is a federal constitutional republic with a parliamentary democracy consisting of 28 states and seven union territories. A pluralistic, multilingual and multiethnic society, India isalso home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The Indian economy is the world's eleventh largest economy by nominal GDP and the fourth largest by purchasing power parity.Since the introduction of market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fastest growing major economies in the world; however, the country continues to face several poverty,illiteracy, corruption and public health related challenges. India is classified as a newly industrialised country and is one of the four BRIC nations. It is a nuclear weapons state and has thethird-largest standing armed force in the world, while its military expenditure ranks tenth in the world. It is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the South AsianAssociation for Regional Cooperation, the East Asia Summit and the G20 industrial nations, and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and the G8+5.
Newly industrialized countriesas of 2009.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
NICs arecountries whose economies have not yet reached First World status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts. Another characterization of NICs is that of nations undergoingrapid economic growth (usually export-oriented). Incipient or ongoing industrialization is an important indicator of a NIC. In many NICs, social upheaval can occur as primarily rural, or agricultural,populations migrate to the cities, where the growth of manufacturing concerns and factories can draw many thousands of laborers.
NICs usually share some other common features, including: