“INDOCTRINATION AND RESISTANCE IN COLCA VALLEY”
TEACHER: MILAGROS RODRIGUEZ
STUDENT: LAURA SOSA LLAIQUI
Indoctrination and Resistance in the Colca Valley
Formal founding of Franciscan doctrinas in the Andean country side followed establishment of their principal monasteries inthe major Spanish cities.
• The Cuzco convent (1534).
• The Monastery of the Inmaculate Conception of Yanque (1560). (Coporaque ,Achoma and Chivay ).
• Callalli(1560)(Tute ,Tisco and Sibayo).
The village of each major kuraka it was decided should have a church:
Wherever important local idols were discovered they were to be destroyed and replace with a church or at leastacross, no one above the age of eight, excepting the ill and elderly should be baptized without first undergoing thirty days of indoctrination in the native language. Clergy were charged with recording names of those baptized.
Aside from recording the assigned name at baptism, the Clergy was to note whether the person was legitimate, the names and origins of the parents, and the names of theirkurakas and encomendero. Council participants insisted that the native name given before the baptism be recorded too.
The men who met in Lima for The First Council were deeply concerned with the need to curtail a variety of abuses prevalent during the early days of indoctrination. Clergy were prohibited from collecting tribute for the encomenderos and from engaging in commerce. Another commonproblem facing the doctrineros in the Indian communities was access to and use of religious structures.
One of the more important of the mandates of the first council was the requirement that the Pater Noster, Ave Maria, Credo and the Lord´s Commandments, be taught in the native language.
In the Second church council the mandates were:
• Newborn should be baptizedwithin 8 days.
• Doctrine should be imparted in native tongue.
• Priests shouldn´t be ordained without proficiency in an Andean tongue.
But in the Sixth Lima Church Council (1772) church officials reiterated the need for clerics in the doctrinas to be able to communicate in the native languages.
Second church council participants returned to persistent issues for rites and customsthey deemed pagan, practices that demanded elimination. Head binding for children, so common in the preconquest colca valley was expressly prohibited.
“The doctrineros should also know that it is completely forbidden to have mills, obrajes, and to engage in any type of commercial activity. Those who have taken as their task the ministry of the teaching of the gospel in no manner can serve godand money at the same time “this rule was frequently breached and ecclesiastical officials decided that strong punishment would have to be meted out to reduce abuses.
Shamans should be separated from the community because of their bad example and damage they could inflict.
Further the council stated “because in place of books the Indians have used and continue to use as records devices ofdifferent strings that they call quipus and this conserve the memory of their ancient superstitions and rites and ceremonies and perverse customs ”
On the one hand Toledo was encouraging community notaries to retain the quipus for statistical record keeping; while on the other hand, the church was ordering their destruction.
A 1662 Peruvian Jesuits annual letter reports that a blind Indianconfessed for four days, using a quipu with various markers of stones, bones or feathers to remind him of the sins he had committed. The Jesuits came to accept the idea that the quipu represents a real form of writing, and they made a serious effort to learn the secrets of their decipherment.
RESISTANCE AND ACCOMMODATION
During the 1580 there were regional outbreaks of idolatry. In late...