Existen diferentes temas de los que se puede necesitar información para el departamento de marketing: |
MERCADO | Tipo de consumidor |
| Sus necesidades
Hábitos de compra
Estilo de vida
Etc. | |
PRODUCTO | Variables decisivas del producto |
Etc. | |
| Aceptación de un producto nuevo |
PRECIO | Precio dispuesto a pagar
Importancia del precio en decisión de compra
Formas de pago más adecuadas
Descuentos Etc. |
DISTRIBUCIÓN | Tipo de canal más utilizado
Tipo de establecimiento típico para nuestro producto
% de reparto por canales
Presencia en el canal porempresas, productos, etc.
Poder de cada canal y sus características
COMUNICACIÓN | Tipos de medios más adecuados
Características de estos medios
COMPETENCIA | Situación actual
Cuotas de mercado
ENTORNO | Datos sociodemográficos
Ingresos y distribución
Equipamiento del hogar
Innovaciones tecnológicas y nuevosmercados |
In a rapidly changing and competitive business environment, it is not easy to predict:
* future trends in consumer tastes and preferences
* competitors' actions
* market conditions.
Creating new products or making changes to existing brands can be expensive. It involves making investment decisions now, in the hope of making a return later. Weighing upfuture returns against an investment is a crucial part of a manager's job.
It always involves an element of risk, because the future is never certain. Managers' previous experience, together with market research information helps them to predict future events and outcomes. However, all business activities involve some element of risk. There is often said to be a link between risk and return. Themore you risk, the higher the likely returns (or profits). However, a balance must be struck.
It follows from this that decisions about a brand, (e.g. whether to develop it, maintain it, allow it to decline, or even kill it off) involve much discussion. In deciding to develop a brand, managers have to decide how much investment to make and to forecast the likelihood of a successful outcome.Brand managers aim to develop a long-term strategy to meet a range of objectives such as:
* growing market share
* developing a unique market position
* creating consumer or brand loyalty
* generating a targeted level of profit.
This case study describes a major investment in Kellogg's Special K. It illustrates how the company's investment in new product development served tostrengthen a global brand
The product life-cycle
The traditional product life-cycle shows how a product goes through 4 stages during its life in the market place. At each stage in the product life-cycle, there is a close relationship between sales and profit so when a product goes into decline, profits decrease.
When a product is introduced to the market, growth is slow due to limited awareness.As the product is establishing itself, sales will start to increase during the period of growth. As the product reaches maturity, the company needs to inject new life into the product, either by creating brand extensions or variants otherwise the product will reach maturity and start to decline.
Before taking any investment decisions, Kellogg's undertook market research. It wanted to answerthese questions:
* What changes taking place in society are likely to affect the product?
* How might new technologies affect our business?
* What are likely to be the future market trends?
* Where are the opportunities within the market place?
* What new categories would appeal to the target market?
* How far do consumers think the brand could stretch into the market for...
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