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A L TEX Tutorials

A P RIMER Indian TEX Users Group Trivandrum, India 2003 September

Indian TEX Users Group E DITOR : E. Krishnan C OVER : G. S. Krishna

A L TEX T UTORIALS — A P RIMER

Copyright c 2002, 2003 Indian TEX Users Group Floor III, SJP Buildings, Cotton Hills Trivandrum 695014, India
http://www.tug.org.in

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify thisdocument under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2, with no invariant sections, no front-cover texts, and no back-cover texts. A copy of the license is included in the end. This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Published by the Indian TEXUsers Group Online versions of this tutorials are available at:
http://www.tug.org.in/tutorials.html

PREFACE
The ideal situation occurs when the things that we regard as beautiful are also regarded by other people as useful. — Donald Knuth

For us who wrote the following pages, TEX is something beautiful and also useful. We enjoy TEX, sharing the delights of newly discovered secretsamongst ourselves and wondering ever a new at the infinite variety of the program and the ingenuity of its creator. We also lend a helping hand to the new initiates to this art. Then we thought of extending this help to a wider group and The Net being the new medium, we started an online tutorial. This was well received and now the Free Software Foundation has decided to publish these lessons as a book.It is a fitting gesture that the organization which upholds the rights of the user to study and modify a software publish a book on one of the earliest programs which allows this right. Dear reader, read the book, enjoy it and if possible, try to add to it. The TUGIndia Tutorial Team

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4

C ONTENTS

I.

The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
I .1

7

What is

A LT

EX? – 7 • I.2 Simple typesetting – 8 • I.3 Fonts – 13 • I.4 Type size – 15

II .

The Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Document class – 17 • II.2 Page style – 18 • II.3 Page numbering – 19 • II.4 Formatting lengths – 20 • II.5 Parts of a document – 20 • II.6 Dividing the document – 21 • II.7 What next? – 23
II .117

III .

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III .1

27

Introduction – 27 • III.2 natbib – 28

IV .

Bibliographic Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV.1 The BIBT X program – 33 • IV .2 BIBT X style files – 33 • IV.3 Creating a bibliographic E E database – 34

33

V.

Table of contents, Indexand Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V.1

39

Table of contents – 39 • V.2 Index – 41 • V.3 Glossary – 44

VI .

Displayed Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Borrowed words – 47 • VI.2 Poetry in typesetting – 48 • VI.3 Making lists – 48 • VI.4 When order matters – 51 • VI.5 Descriptions and definitions – 54
VI.1

47

VII .Rows and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VII .1

57

Keeping tabs – 57 • VII.2 Tables – 62

VIII .

Typesetting Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The basics – 77 • VIII.2 Custom commands – 81 • VIII.3 More on mathematics – 82 • Mathematics miscellany – 89 • VIII.5 New operators – 101 • VIII.6 The many faces ofmathematics – 102 • VIII.7 And that is not all! – 103 • VIII.8 Symbols – 103
VIII.1 VIII.4

77

IX .

Typesetting Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
A IX.1 Theorems in L T X – 109 • IX.2 Designer theorems—The amsthm package – 111 • IX .3 E Housekeeping – 118

X.

Several Kinds of Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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