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J. Agric. Food Chem. XXXX, XXX, 000–000
DOI:10.1021/jf101202x

A

A Comparative Study on Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)
AHMED HASSAN EL-GHORAB,† MUHAMMAD NAUMAN,‡ FAQIR MUHAMMAD ANJUM,‡ SHAHZAD HUSSAIN,*,‡ AND MUHAMMAD NADEEM‡


National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture,Faisalabad, Pakistan, and † Flavor and Aromatic Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cario, Egypt

Spices are the building blocks of flavor in foods. This research work was focused on two important spices, i.e., ginger and cumin. Ginger and cumin both are recognized for their antioxidant properties. So, this study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity ofginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum). The highest yield for volatile oil was obtained by the cumin sample, which was 2.52 ( 0.11%, while the fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.31 ( 0.08%). The analysis of volatile oils of fresh and dried ginger showed camphene, p-cineole, R-terpineol, zingiberene and pentadecanoic acid as major components, while the major components in cuminvolatile oil were cuminal, γ-terpinene and pinocarveol. In nonvolatile extracts the highest yield was obtained by the methanol extract of cumin (4.08 ( 0.17% w/w), while the n-hexane extract of fresh ginger showed the lowest yield (0.52 ( 0.03% w/w). Maximum total phenolic contents were observed in the methanol extract of fresh ginger (95.2 mg/g dry extract) followed by the hexane extract of freshginger (87.5 mg/g dry extract). The hexane extract of cumin showed the lowest total phenolic content (10.6 mg/g dry extract). The DPPH method showed the highest antioxidant activity for cumin essential oil (85.44 ( 0.50%) followed by dried ginger essential oil (83.87 ( 0.50%) and fresh ginger essential oil (83.03 ( 0.54%). The FRAP of essential oils showed almost comparative results with DPPH.Cumin essential oil was found best in reducing Fe3þ ions, followed by dried and fresh ginger. Our results suggest that both ginger and cumin can be used as potential sources of natural antioxidants in foods.
KEYWORDS: Ginger; cumin; essential oil; antioxidants; phenols

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, food professionals are continually searching for “new” and unique spice flavorings because of therising global demand for authentic ethnic and cross-cultural cuisines. Consumers are also in quest of natural foods and natural preservatives for healthier lifestyles and natural ways of preventing ailments. So, spices are being sought for their medicinal value, as antioxidants and as antimicrobials (1). The spice ginger is obtained from the underground stems or rhizomes of Zingiber officinale(Rosc.), family Zingiberaceae. Ginger rhizome is typically consumed as a fresh paste, dried powder, slices preserved in syrup, or candy (crystallized ginger) or for flavoring tea. The underground stem or rhizome of this plant has been used as a medicine in Asian, Indian and Arabic herbal traditions since ancient times (2). It has been used in herbal medicine practice for the treatment of arthritis,rheumatological conditions and muscular discomfort (3). Ginger has also been suggested for the treatment of various other conditions, including atherosclerosis, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, high
*Corresponding author. E-mail: shahzada80us@yahoo.com. Phone: þ923336531284.

cholesterol, ulcers, depression, and impotence. In addition to these medicinal uses, ginger continues to be valuedaround the world as an important cooking spice and is believed to help against common cold, flu-like symptoms, and even painful menstrual periods (4). Cumin is a strong aromatic dried ripe fruit (seed) of Cuminum cyminum L. It belongs to the Apiaceae family (parsley family). Cumin seeds are ancient spices with a strong aromatic smell and warm, bitterish taste. It is widely used as a condiment and...
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