The Mayan civilization inhabited a vast region known as Mesoamerica, the territory now comprised of five southeastern states of Mexico that are, Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Tabasco and Yucatan, and Central America, in the current territories of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, with a history of about 3,000 years.
During this long time in this territoryhundreds of dialects spoken today generate about 44 different Mayan languages. Speaking of "Ancient Maya "to refer to the history of one of the most important pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, because his legacy is a worldwide scientific and astronomical. Contrary to widespread belief, the Mayan civilization never "disappeared. " At least, not completely, as their descendants still live in theregion and many of them speak one of the languages of the Mayan family.
Mayan literature illustrates the life of this culture. Works like Rabinal Achi, the Popol Vuh, the various books of Chilam Balam, are proof of that. What it was destroyed by the conquest is the model of civilization that until the arrival of the first Spanish, had generated three millennia of history.
The Spanishconquest of the Maya was accomplished until 1697, with making Tayasal, capital of the Maya Itza and Zacpetén, capital of the Maya in the Petén Ko'woj (modern Guatemala). The last Maya state disappeared when the Mexican government of Porfirio Diaz in 1901 occupied its capital, Chan Santa Cruz, thus ending the so-called Caste War.
The Mayans were big and impressive buildings from the Middle Preclassicand cities as Nakbé, El Mirador, San Bartolo, Cival, located in the Mirador Basin in northern Petén, and during the Classic, the well-known cities of Tikal, Quirigua (both the first to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979 and 1981 respectively) Palenque, Copan, Rio Azul, Calakmul, Comalcalco (built of baked bricks) and Ceibal Cancuén Machaquilá, Dos Pilas, Uaxactún, Altun Ha,Piedras Negras and many other places in the area. It can be classified as an empire, but it is unknown if, when the colonists imposed their culture or was a result of your organization in independent city-states were the basis of agriculture and trade. The most notable monuments are the pyramids they built in their religious sites, along with the palaces of their rulers and palaces, places of governmentand residence of the nobles, the highest found so far Cancuén in southern Petén many of whose structures were decorated with mural paintings and stucco decorations. Other important archaeological remains include the carved stone slabs usually called stelae (the Maya called them Tetun, or "three stones"), which depict rulers along with logographic texts describing their genealogy, militaryvictories and other achievements. The Mayan pottery is ranked as the most varied and elaborate fine ancient world.
The Maya participated in long distance trade in Mesoamerica and possibly beyond. Among the goods were the jade trade, cocoa, corn, salt and obsidian
Much of the population was engaged in the agricultural days, so used clothing to the conditions also depended on the level ofsocial clothing. Most people dressed simply, women with or hipil blouse or a skirt and mantle, and men with a kind of underwear called pati. However, the nobility used rich and complicated costumes embroidered with feathers and jewels, wore leather sandals and wore large headdresses, as well as necklaces, belts and heavy chest inlaid with mother of pearl and carved stones. Other items were commonamong nobles skirts, long or short coats, jackets (usually jaguar fur or cotton), ornaments of shells, snails and geometric designs. Apart from playing, some nobles and priests were huge earrings, nose rings, bracelets and rings of jade, quartz and gold, and pierced chin, under the lower lip, to embed a big kiss.
Among the accessories had hats, turbans, headdresses, tiaras and conical hats....