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  • Publicado : 12 de mayo de 2010
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Electronics and
Computer Science

1 I n d e x

Basic definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Organization of a computer . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Types of computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

The Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 12
Devices and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

The Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Random Access Memory (RAM) . . . . . . 16
The Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

The Microprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
A brief story ofa microprocessor . . . . . . . . 20
Manufacturing a microprocessor . . . . . . . . 21

1 Advantages of a microprocessor . . . . . . . . . 21

The software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

BASIC DEFINITIONS
In order to describe precisely the systems and components that will be presented in this thematic unit, specific words and abbreviations will be used. Every effort has been made to define these words before they are used. You will learn the language of microprocessors as we proceed. There are some initial definitions.
An integrated circuit (IC) is a devicethat integrates a circuit of several electronic components in a single package. The number of logical components, typically transistors may range in number from 2 to more than 100,000.
Large-scale integration (LSI) designates the new technology that integrates thousands of transistors on a single integrated circuit (IC).
A chip is the small rectangular piece of silicon on which mostintegrated circuits are implemented. By extension, chip is often used to referthe package containing the chip.
A micropocessor is an LSI component that implements most of the functions of a traditional processor on a single chip.
A microcomputer is a computer whose central processing unit (CPU) has been implemented with a microprocessor. Typically a microcomputer uses one or moreboards to implement all the functions of a complete computer. However, simplified computers can be implemented on a single chip and are called single-chip microcomputers.
A microprocessor system refers to the electronic boards required to implement a functional computer. Generally, this does not include the cabinet, power supply and peripherals.
A microcomputer system refers to thecomplete set of devices required to use an operate a computer, including the peripherals such as terminal, printer or disks.
The binary number system is used to represent all information in the computer, whether program or data. Each character, number or entity is encoded internally as a group of 0s and 1s. Each 0 or 1 is called a binary digit or bit. A group of eigth bits is called a byte.Microprocessors are used along with other LSI components, to implement computers. The microprocessor implements most of the functions of the processing unit.
The COMPUTER
A computer is a machine for manipulating data according to a list of instructions, computers take numerous physical forms. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as severalhundred modern personal computers. Today, computers can be made small enough to fit into a wrist watch and be powered from a watch battery. Society has come to recognize personal computers and their portable equivalent, the laptop computer, as icons of the information age; they are what most people think of as "a computer". However, the most common form of computer in use today is by far the...
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