Not every fashion detail is used by designers every season. A certain type of collar may appear on many garments one year; the next year another style is popular. Garment features— necklines, collars, and sleeves—can be combined to create many different looks. Some combinations, however, are more pleasing and practical than others.
The neckline is thearea around the neck and shoulders. Before the twentieth century, garments from the same period all had similar necklines.
Today many different types appear in a season:
• Jewel. This high, rounded neckline is so named because it provides a good background for a necklace or pin.
• Crew. Also high and round, the crew neckline is finished with a knit band. This style was originally on sweatersworn by rowing crews.
• Cowl. The cowl is a softly draped neckline on a dress or blouse. Because it’s cut on the bias, which is the diagonal grain of the fabric, soft folds form. Cowl, which means softly draped, was originally the term for a hooded robe worn by monks.
• Bateau. This neckline resembles the outline of a long, low boat resting on the water. Bateau is the French word for boat.• Sweetheart. This neckline is moderately low in front and forms a point, similar to a heart shape.
• Halter. With this neckline, a drawstring or band holds a sleeveless garment front in place at the neck. The shoulders and back are bare.
A collar is a separate piece of fabric attached to the neckline. It can be small or large, soft or stiff, stand up or fold over.Although most collars are sewn onto the garment, some are detachable. Removable collars change a garment’s look and can be cleaned separately. They can be held in place with buttons, snaps, hook-and-loop fasteners, or basting stitches.
Classic collar styles include the shirt, button down, convertible, notched, and shawl collar. Some collars are joined to a lapel, the front part of a shirt or jacketthat is folded back on the chest. The notched collar forms a point where the collar and lapel meet. In contrast, the shawl collar joins the lapel in a continuous line. Some curiously named collars are explained below.
• Peter Pan. The Peter Pan collar is small and flat, with rounded corners. The name is taken from the play Peter Pan, written in 1904 by James M. Barrie. The costumes in the playhad this collar style.
• Sailor or middy. This collar was copied from those on a sailor’s uniform. A middy, or midshipman, is a student at a naval academy.
• Mandarin. The stand-up style of a mandarin collar is seen in the traditional dress worn in China. The term mandarin is the name of the dialect spoken in many parts of China, including Beijing.
• Tuxedo. This collar has turned-downpoints and is usually worn with a bow tie and tuxedo jacket, named after Tuxedo Park, NY.
• Chelsea. The chelsea collar first became popular in the Chelsea section of London.
• Puritan. Named for the Puritans of the sixteenth century, this collar imitates the style they wore.
• Ruff. A small, stand-up ruffle identifies the ruff collar. It’s less frilly than the stiff white ruffs worn by menand women at the turn of the seventeenth century.
• Jabot. This is a small, standing collar with a lacy, ruffled, or pleated trimming attached at the front. The trimming is called a jabot (zha-BOH).
The sleeve has come a long way from its beginning as an overhang of material draped about the shoulders. Sleeves today, range from a tiny cap, to a full flounced attachment.• Set-in. The set-in sleeve is joined to the garment by an armhole seam that circles the arm near the shoulder.
• Raglan. A front and back diagonal seam that extends from the neckline to the underarm identifies the raglan sleeve.
• Kimono. A kimono sleeve is cut in one piece that includes the garment front and back. It is then sewn together along the outer arm and the underarm.