Form of PresentPerfect
Positive Negative Question
I / you / we / they I have spoken. I have not spoken. Have I spoken?
he / she / it He has spoken. He has not spoken. Has he spoken?
Forirregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.
Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’
Exceptions in spelling when addinged Example
after a final e only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled admit – admitted
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried
Use of Present Perfect
puts emphasis on the result
Example: She has written five letters.
action that is stillgoing on
Example: School has not started yet.
action that stopped recently
Example: She has cooked dinner.
finished action that has an influence on the presentExample: I have lost my key.
action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
Example: I have never been to Australia.
SignalWords of Present Perfect
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Exercises on Present Perfect
Exceptions in Spelling when adding ‘ed’
Positive Sentences in Present Perfect Simple
Negative Sentences in Present Perfect Simple
Sentences with ‘never’ in Present Perfect Simple
Questions in PresentPerfect Simple
Questions with Interrogative Particles in Present Perfect Simple
Mixed Exercise on Present Perfect Simple
Exercise on the text “Loch Ness”