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he present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.
Form of PresentPerfect
Positive Negative Question
I / you / we / they I have spoken. I have not spoken. Have I spoken?
he / she / it He has spoken. He has not spoken. Has he spoken?

Forirregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.
Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’
Exceptions in spelling when addinged Example
after a final e only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled admit – admitted
travel –travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried
Use of Present Perfect

puts emphasis on the result

Example: She has written five letters.
action that is stillgoing on

Example: School has not started yet.
action that stopped recently

Example: She has cooked dinner.
finished action that has an influence on the presentExample: I have lost my key.
action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

Example: I have never been to Australia.

SignalWords of Present Perfect

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Exercises on Present Perfect

Exceptions in Spelling when adding ‘ed’
have orhas
Positive Sentences in Present Perfect Simple
Negative Sentences in Present Perfect Simple
Sentences with ‘never’ in Present Perfect Simple
Questions in PresentPerfect Simple
Questions with Interrogative Particles in Present Perfect Simple
Mixed Exercise on Present Perfect Simple
Exercise on the text “Loch Ness”
Irregular Verbs
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