Mercedes López Carrero
The Englishman, Lewis Paul, replaced the use of human fingers in cotton spinning by the use of rollers with the patent takenout in 1738. This machine didn’t work. After it, Richard Arkwright created the “throstle” or “water frame”. That was based in the Lewis Paul’s patent but it differed from it in the fact that he usedtwo pairs of rollers that moved in different quickness and were separated by the same distance of the length of the longest fiber to make it spin. Contrariwise of Lewis Paul’s machine, that oneworked.
James Hargreaves invented in 1764 another invention (the spinning jenny), that was the complementation of another invention, but he only patented it one year after the throstle. His idea was toimpart the twist by the turning of the wheel itself instead of the movement of the fingers (like some years before) and his machine used many spindles instead of one, so that a larger number of threadswould be spun at the same time.
The last spinning machine was invented by Samuel Crompton. It called the mule. The mule consisted of a carriage that was driven back and forth. The spindles mounted onit turned quickly and together with the rollers imparted the twist on the yarn, which could then be wound on bobbins.
By this mechanism, the yarn was not subjected to much strain so the chances forbreaking were muxh reduced. As a result, cotton became a growth industry. Spinning jennies, water frames, and mules were all tried in domestic industry, but soon the factory was found to be a morecongenial location for the new spinning technology. Nonetheless, it is not warranted to associate the Industrial Revolution with the rise of the factory system; domestic industry, too, experienced somemeasure of technological progress.
The following new machine was the self-acting mule, achieved by 1780. It was patented by Richard Roberts. It is known as “an almost perfect machine”. The self...