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LUIS PASTEUR

He was born on December 15, 1852 in Paris, in a family with a long history within the field of science. His father, Alexandre Becquerel studied the light and the phosphorescence and invented fosforoscopia, while his grandfather, Antoine Cesar Becquerel, was a founder of electrochemistry. He studied and received his doctorate in science at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. He wasprofessor of natural history museum in 1892, taking over the chair to his father, who in turn had replaced him. In 1894 he was appointed chief engineer of the French Ministry of Roads and Bridges. In its first activity in the field of scientific experiments investigated phenomena related to rotation of polarized light, caused by magnetic fields. She later moved on to examine the spectrum resultingfrom the stimulation of phosphorescent crystals with infrared light. Becquerel published its findings in numerous articles, mainly in the Annals of Physics and Chemistry and Communications at the Academy of Sciences. In 1889 he was elected to the Academy of Sciences of France. He was also member of several foreign academies, such as Berlin and the Lincei. In 1900 he was appointed an Officer of theLegion of Honor. For his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, he shared with the pairing of Pierre and Marie Curie. He died in Le Croisic (UK) on August 25, 1908.



CHARLES DARWIN
Sherewsbury Charles Darwin was born in England in 1809. He was the son and grandson of physicians. His grandfather, Erasmus Darwin was a famous physician andpoet of the eighteenth century, a precursor of their theories and that he has never known.

His mother, Susannah Wedgwood died when he was eight years old and older sister (six brothers, four were girls) undertook to educate him.

After studying medicine in Edinburgh for two years, he entered Cambridge to study theology. One of his teachers, the botanist Dr. Henslow him regain his interest innatural sciences, especially geology, botany and entomology.

Embarked on his recommendation on the Beagle as a naturalist of the expedition of Captain Fitzroy, 1831. For five years he toured South America and the Pacific Islands and the young Darwin was collecting comments on that would draw any further research work.
After returning from his trip he married and compiled the notes from thevoyage, which published between 1840 and 1843 under the title "Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle." In 1851 he also published a valuable study on barnacles (a subclass of marine crustaceans).

It was not until 1859 that he published the book in which he had been working since his return, for almost twenty years: "The Origin of Species."
The book contains an explanatory theory of evolution,called Darwinism, based on numerous observations, and that from the moment of its publication involved the immersion of Charles Darwin in the ongoing discussions, criticisms and confrontations with many scientists.

In "The Descent of Man" published in 1871, defended the theory that human evolution from an apelike animal. Religious authorities branded him an atheist and blasphemer.


ROBERT HOOKERobert Hooke (Freshwater, July 18, 1635 - London, March 3, 1703) English scientist.It was one of the most important experimental scientists in the history of science, tireless polemicist with a creative genius of the highest order. His interests spanned such disparate fields as biology, medicine, timing, planetary physics, mechanics of deformable solids, microscopy, marine and architecture.Participated in the creation of the first scientific society in history, the Royal Society of London. His controversies with Newton about the authorship of the law of universal gravitation have become part of the history of science: it seems that Hooke was very prolific in original ideas then rarely developed.
In 1662 assumed the post of director of experimentation at the Royal Society of London,...
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