UNIT 8 PHRASAL VERBS
A phrasal verb is a verb + a preposition or adverb resulting in a new verb with a different meaning. The meaning of the combination cannot usually be guessed from its separate parts. They are used all the time in everyday English and you need to know them in order to understand and speak natural English. Differences between verbs followed by prepositions and verbs followedby adverbs These differences are summarized in the following table. The verbs to sit and to turn are used as examples. The verb to sit is followed by on used as a preposition, whereas the verb to turn is followed by on used as an adverb. Verb followed by Preposition Pronoun object is placed after the preposition: I sat on it. Adverb of manner may be placed between verb and preposition: I satquietly on it. Verb is stressed: This is what I sat on. Verb followed by Adverb Pronoun object is placed before the adverb: I turned it on. Adverb of manner may not be placed between verb and adverb: I quietly turned it on. Adverb is stressed: This is what I turned on.
There are four types of phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs can be separable or inseparable and they can take an object or not. Here is aguide to the basics of phrasal verbs. Phrasal Verbs which Take Objects Phrasal verbs which take objects can be separable or inseparable: Separable phrasal verbs can remain together when using an object that is a noun or noun phrase.
I picked Tom up. OR I picked up Tom. They put their friends up. OR They put up their friends.
Separable phrasal verbs MUST be separated when a pronoun isused:
We picked him up at the station. NOT We picked up him at the station. They put them up. NOT They put up them. 1
Inseparable phrasal verbs always remain together. It makes no difference if a noun or pronoun is used.
We set off for the beach. / We set off for it. They are looking after the children. / They are looking after them.
Phrasal Verbs which Don't Take Objects Somephrasal verbs do not take objects. These phrasal verbs are ALWAYS inseparable.
The thieves got away. The bus broke down on the way to work. She got up early.
TIP! If you are not sure whether a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable, ALWAYS use a noun or nouns phrase and DO NOT separate. In this manner, you will always be correct! Separable Phrasal Verbs: bring up, take off
They brought up their children to respect others. She took off her jacket before she began the lesson.
Inseparable Phrasal Verbs: look for, set off
She was looking for her books when he arrived. They set off for a wonderful holiday in Hawaii.
Three-word Phrasal Verbs Some verbs are followed by two prepositions (or adverbs). These phrasal verbs are ALWAYS inseparable.
I'mlooking forward to meeting John. OR I'm looking forward to meeting him. They didn't get on with their mother. OR They didn't get on with her.
List of most common phrasal verbs with meaning and examples: add up (1. no object): make sense. "His theory is hard to believe, but his research adds up." Note: This phrasal verb is often negative.
"His theory seems, at first, to be plausible, but thefacts in his research don't add up."
add up (2. separable): find the total, calculate a sum. "What's the total of those bills? Could you add them up and see?"
add up to (inseparable): to total. "The bills add up to $734.96. That's more than I expected!" ask out (separable): ask for a date. "Nancy has a new boy friend. Joe asked her out last night." back off (no object): not follow a threat."Tom was ready to call the police when I told him I'd wrecked his car, but he backed off when I said I'd pay for the damages." back up (1. no object): move backward; move in reverse. "You missed the lines in the parking space. You'll have to back up and try again." back up (2.separable): give support “ You need examples to back up your opinion.” back up (3. separable): make a "protection" copy...
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